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    Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

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    Cichorei Kano

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    Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Mon Aug 05, 2013 4:49 am

    This month's issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, one of the leading scientific journals in sports medicine and science, contains a scholarly article entitled "the individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training in patients". The article evaluated parameters of strength and fitness after a 3-month supervised training program in cardiac patients, and compared the outcomes to genetic predisposition.

    The relevance of this study here is that adds evidence to what I have said many times, that you can train as hard as you want, but you will never get even close to the person who has the right genes. The only way to bridge that gap is to manipulate what the lack of right genes can't achieve, that is the use of illegal drugs. Only then you can have a yield and recovery that can do what training can't do. Is that the final solution ? No, because we live in a time and age that we have the people who are already genetically gifted who will also make use of illegal drugs, again widening the gap with those who don't have the right genes and take drugs. So at the end of the day, the problem is unsolvable unless you involve gene manipulation or selection. In many sports though we are now likely close to the limits of human performance that is already a combination of ideal factors in terms of technique, genes, drugs, and environmental conditions.


    The full reference of the study is: Thomaes T., et al.: Genetic Predisposition Scores Associate with Muscular Strength, Size, and Trainability. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 45, 8: 1451–1459, 2013.


    The Abstract of the study is here:

    Abstract/Introduction: The number of studies trying to identify genetic sequence variation related to muscular phenotypes has increased enormously. The aim of this study was to identify the role of a genetic predisposition score (GPS) based on earlier identified gene variants for different muscular endophenotypes to explain the individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Methods: Two hundred and sixty coronary artery disease patients followed a standard ambulatory, 3-month supervised training program for cardiac patients. Maximal knee extension strength (KES) and rectus femoris diameter were measured at baseline and after rehabilitation. Sixty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 30 genes were selected based on genotype–phenotype association literature. Backward regression analysis revealed subsets of SNP associated with the different phenotypes. GPS were constructed for all sets of SNP by adding up the strength-increasing alleles. General linear models and multiple stepwise regression analysis were used to test the explained variance of the GPS in baseline and strength responses. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to discriminate between high- and low-responder status.

    Results: GPS were significantly associated with the rectus femoris diameter (P < 0.01) and its response (P < 0.0001), the isometric KES (P < 0.05) and its response (P < 0.01), the isokinetic KES at 60°·s−1 (P < 0.05) and 180°·s−1 (P < 0.001) and their responses to training (P < 0.0001), and the isokinetic KES endurance (P < 0.001) and its change after training (P < 0.0001). The GPS was shown as an independent determinant in baseline and response phenotypes with partial explained variance up to 23%. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant discriminating accuracy of the models, including the GPS for responses to training, with areas under the curve ranging from 0.62 to 0.85.

    Conclusion: GPS for muscular phenotypes showed to be associated with baseline KES, muscle diameter, and the response to training in cardiac rehabilitation patients.


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    Michael-H

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    Re: Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by Michael-H on Tue Aug 13, 2013 4:47 am

    That's really interesting. The correlation and explained variation is much higher than for most genetic risk scores although the statistics are a bit circumspect. Thanks.

    M
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    afulldeck

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    Re: Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by afulldeck on Tue Aug 13, 2013 7:05 am

    Cichorei Kano wrote: The relevance of this study here is that adds evidence to what I have said many times, that you can train as hard as you want, but you will never get even close to the person who has the right genes.
    It wasn't a fair fight anyway....damn those mean genes! If my father was alive I kick him in the .... well you no where ....

    CK, I hope your not implying that the rest of us are simply wasting our time in judo (or any other sport, art, or leisure study for that matter) because we are a composite of the shallow end of the genetic pool;  or further, that our time is better spent wallowing in self pity at the side of the mat (or reading about other glorious deeds others) rather than to step on it? I trust that is not what you intended to imply?

    As far as I am concerned participating, learning, enduring are much more important than genetics. Sure the right genes allow one to step on the winner podium, but let's face it, there are very few who will ever be called winners in that regard.


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    Cichorei Kano

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    Re: Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Tue Aug 13, 2013 8:50 am

    afulldeck wrote:
    Cichorei Kano wrote: The relevance of this study here is that adds evidence to what I have said many times, that you can train as hard as you want, but you will never get even close to the person who has the right genes.
    It wasn't a fair fight anyway....damn those mean genes! If my father was alive I kick him in the .... well you no where ....

    CK, I hope your not implying that the rest of us are simply wasting our time in judo (or any other sport, art, or leisure study for that matter) because we are a composite of the shallow end of the genetic pool;  or further, that our time is better spent wallowing in self pity at the side of the mat (or reading about other glorious deeds others) rather than to step on it? I trust that is not what you intended to imply?

    As far as I am concerned participating, learning, enduring are much more important than genetics. Sure the right genes allow one to step on the winner podium, but let's face it, there are very few who will ever be called winners in that regard.
    I like to use my time in a meaningful way, and I have found that being realistic assists in achieving that. However, in reality most people do not like that at all. People in general prefer promises and fantasies that make them feel better about themselves. As a teacher, lyou continuously have to engage in such nonsense. You have to convince that your students are promising and will have a lot of opportunities in their life and blahblahblah. The reality is that most of us suck, are pretty mediocre and are slowly dying, unfortunately some of us more quickly than others. Most of us and of you will not have successful lives. If you marry, the likelihood that it will end in divorce is greater than that you will stay together, and our miserable lives on this earth will likely end in agony realizing that our lives were hopeless and we have achieved nothing.

    Commencement ceremonies (and I participated in quite a few) are an outstanding circumstance to lie to people, and so university presidents and speakers grab this occasion with both hands to do so. People can't handle the truth and they do not appreciate it if you do. The following is a recent commencement speech where the speaker actually told people the truth. It was not appreciated:

    http://www.myfoxboston.com/story/18720284/2012/06/06/full-transcript-youre-not-special-speech
    http://responsibility-project.libertymutual.com/blog/the-controversial-commencement-speech
    http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/teacher-defends-special-speech-delivered-high-school-graduation-article-1.1094060

    Some may find this pessimistic, but I don't think it is. There is nothing wrong with accepting that we suck and are slowly dying and putting efforts into it to suck less and die more slowly. I think those are worthwhile purposes and we can realize them without needing special genes. The only difference is that those with special genes and who also put in the necessary effort may rise out of mediocrity. I think that is only realistic.


    _________________


    "The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
    "Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
    "Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
    "I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."
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    Rensa

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    Re: Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by Rensa on Tue Aug 13, 2013 6:16 pm

    CK, your post is encouraging. Nothing is worse than the desillusion after an illusion. Accepting that we all suck most of the times, is not only realistic, buth also true. Living in a lie is slavery.


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    afulldeck

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    Re: Genetics are responsible for individual differences in muscular fitness characteristics and the response to training

    Post by afulldeck on Wed Aug 14, 2013 4:54 am

    Cichorei Kano wrote:
    afulldeck wrote:
    Cichorei Kano wrote: The relevance of this study here is that adds evidence to what I have said many times, that you can train as hard as you want, but you will never get even close to the person who has the right genes.
    It wasn't a fair fight anyway....damn those mean genes! If my father was alive I kick him in the .... well you no where ....

    CK, I hope your not implying that the rest of us are simply wasting our time in judo (or any other sport, art, or leisure study for that matter) because we are a composite of the shallow end of the genetic pool;  or further, that our time is better spent wallowing in self pity at the side of the mat (or reading about other glorious deeds others) rather than to step on it? I trust that is not what you intended to imply?

    As far as I am concerned participating, learning, enduring are much more important than genetics. Sure the right genes allow one to step on the winner podium, but let's face it, there are very few who will ever be called winners in that regard.
    I like to use my time in a meaningful way, and I have found that being realistic assists in achieving that. However, in reality most people do not like that at all. People in general prefer promises and fantasies that make them feel better about themselves. As a teacher, lyou continuously have to engage in such nonsense. You have to convince that your students are promising and will have a lot of opportunities in their life and blahblahblah. The reality is that most of us suck, are pretty mediocre and are slowly dying, unfortunately some of us more quickly than others. Most of us and of you will not have successful lives. If you marry, the likelihood that it will end in divorce is greater than that you will stay together, and our miserable lives on this earth will likely end in agony realizing that our lives were hopeless and we have achieved nothing.

    Commencement ceremonies (and I participated in quite a few) are an outstanding circumstance to lie to people, and so university presidents and speakers grab this occasion with both hands to do so. People can't handle the truth and they do not appreciate it if you do. The following is a recent commencement speech where the speaker actually told people the truth. It was not appreciated:

    http://www.myfoxboston.com/story/18720284/2012/06/06/full-transcript-youre-not-special-speech
    http://responsibility-project.libertymutual.com/blog/the-controversial-commencement-speech
    http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/teacher-defends-special-speech-delivered-high-school-graduation-article-1.1094060

    Some may find this pessimistic, but I don't think it is. There is nothing wrong with accepting that we suck and are slowly dying and putting efforts into it to suck less and die more slowly. I think those are worthwhile purposes and we can realize them without needing special genes. The only difference is that those with special genes and who also put in the necessary effort may rise out of mediocrity. I think that is only realistic.

    I would add do not conflate the wants of uneducated youth (I include universities here as well) with their needs, and you don't appear to be sucked into that folly. That said, youth are not 'all people' and universities are a world apart from the reality most people endure. Did you noticed in the last link you sent there was a poll about whether the speech 'your not special' was appropriate?  When I looked at it, 93% of the people agree with the speaker. Only 4% disagreed. I think you may have more people in your camp than you think. Certainly in the working class world, most people do not believe they are special and they resent anyone who claims to be special especially their bosses.  

    That said, to get back to the topic at hand. The majority of people don't have the gene to a winner whether a gifted judoka, a nobel prized scientist, or beauty queen. But as David McCullough said "...Resist the easy comforts of complacency, the specious glitter of materialism, the narcotic paralysis of self-satisfaction.  Be worthy of your advantages..." and no matter what genetic limitation you have go do JUDO. Become the best uke you can be ....


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    “I have never wished to cater to the crowd; for what I know they do not approve, and what they approve I do not know.” ... Epicurus at Sen. Lucil, 29.10

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