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    Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

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    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Fri Jan 29, 2016 9:57 pm

    Hi NBK

    As Kano had a traditional education and learned chinese (characters) for sure he had to know the confucian classics and the Daodejing/Laozi. In general water symbolizes the soft, weak, calm, feminin, modest but is also very powerful and can transform/change into all forms/shapes and all aggregates (water, fog/clouds, ice). It is one of the Five Phases (wu xing 五行).  It's very unlikely, that Kano didn't know all of this - and more.

    "Ju"do as "best use of energy" in Daodejing:

    Laozi 36

    That which shrinks
    Must first expand.
    That which fails
    Must first be strong.
    That which is cast down
    Must first be raised.
    Before receiving
    There must be giving.

    This is called perception of the nature of things.
    Soft and weak overcome hard and strong.

    Laozi 43

    The softest thing in the universe
    Overcomes the hardest thing in the universe.
    That without substance can enter where there is no room.

    Laozi 78

    Under heaven nothing is more soft and yielding than water.
    Yet for attacking the solid and strong, nothing is better;
    It has no equal.

    The weak can overcome the strong;
    The supple can overcome the stiff.

    Under heaven everyone knows this,
    Yet no one puts it into practice.


    Last edited by Anatol on Fri Jan 29, 2016 10:51 pm; edited 1 time in total

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Fri Jan 29, 2016 10:21 pm

    Hi Kaiji

    In Confucianism, especially when applying the I-Ching, there are two closely related concepts of 1. timing 當時 and 2. positioning 當位.

    This is a fine/subtle observation. Many try to use the Yijing as a book for fortune telling but in fact it has a lot to do with recognizing Li  禮 as an order of nature and using the insights for right positioning and timing in an always changing (yi 易) environment and forces (like in shiai ...) and this reflects "best use of energy".

    Kaji

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Kaji on Sat Jan 30, 2016 11:36 pm

    Yeah, using the Yijing/I-Ching for fortune telling only is like practising Judo only to move heavy furniture more easily.

    Meanwhile, I'd like to make the distinction, or dichotomy, of means/methodology (yang) and ends/goal (yin).

    Seiryoku Zenyo is means, methodology and of yang nature. Without the ultimate purpose of Jita Kyoei, one can actually become more effective and efficient in harming other people, and oneself too.

    Jita Kyoei is of course the ends, goal and of yin nature. Without Seiryoku Zenyo one might not achieve much even though in the right direction.

    This is also an application of 體用論 the theory of body vs function. Jita Kyoei is Judo's body and Seiryoku Zenyo its function.

    Now Buddhism in the Chinese culture has expanded the model to add 相 phenomenon to make it a trichotomy of body vs function vs phenomenon. In Judo, the phenomenon would be the techniques.

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Mon Feb 01, 2016 11:14 pm

    Hi Kaiji

    I can follow your line of arguments esp. "ti" (body, substance) and "yong" (use, function) close to "ben" (root) and "mo"(fork/branch) and "Dao"  and "wan wu" (tenthousend things).

    Seiryoku Zenyo is means, methodology and of yang nature. Without the ultimate purpose of Jita Kyoei, one can actually become more effective and efficient in harming other people, and oneself too.
    I had the same question/thought a time ago and a brief discussion with wdax.

    As you know, "sei ryoku zen yo" lit "mind body best use" the central term is "zen" 善 ... What is "best"?

    Is it only the best use in form of efficiency or is there also an ethical meaning/implication?

    Quote wdax:

    "Zen" 善 means "good" or "for good purpose". Seiryoku-zenyo clearly is a moral principle: To use one´s physical and mental power with maximum efficiency to do good things". Please remember that it is shortened form seiryoku-kaizen-katsuyo. But there is no definition of what is good or not, so jita-kyo´ei was added. "Good is, what leads to mutual welfare - physical, moral and mental".

    My anser to wdax:

    I do not read japanese but in chinese the hanzi "shan4" (zen) means both: "good" and also "virtuous".

    If this is the same in japanese, "Seiryoku zenyo" has clearly a moral component too.

    ...

    From my point of view, you can eliminate "jita kyoei" and have only one principle in Judo IF you know, what the best use of energies (mind and body) means in an ethical context and everyday life. In fact, there are very different views, what is the "best ethics" and what is "the best society" and "mutual welfare and benefit" and "peace and harmony" and "selfperfection" are no clear answers to these questions.

    Some may think, this is spliiting hair, but in religion and philosophy and politics and economy the answers can differ from Buddhism to Salafism and from Anarchism to Absolutism, from  Liberalism/Capitalism to Communism and so on and so on - and all exponents of every single ideology would say, this is for the mutual benefitand welfare of all and for peace and harmony ...

    noboru

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    Gunji Koizumi - Maximum Efficiency and the Body Mechanism

    Post by noboru on Wed Feb 03, 2016 7:44 am


    Budokwai bulletine - issue April 1957
    http://www.madpc.co.uk/~BJA/PDF/Judo%20-%20Apr%201957%20V1%20N7.PDF

    Page 22 - article from Gunji Koizumi - Maximum Efficiency and the Body Mechanism


    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Wed Feb 03, 2016 10:04 am

    noboru wrote:
    Budokwai bulletine - issue April 1957
    http://www.madpc.co.uk/~BJA/PDF/Judo%20-%20Apr%201957%20V1%20N7.PDF

    Page 22 - article from Gunji Koizumi - Maximum Efficiency and the Body Mechanism

    I am always impressed with the quality of the old Budokwai bulletins - editing, content, local reports, etc. A lot of work went into their production.

    Thanks for posting this.

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Wed Feb 03, 2016 10:31 am

    Anatol wrote:Hi Kaiji

    I can follow your line of arguments esp. "ti" (body, substance) and "yong" (use, function) close to "ben" (root) and "mo"(fork/branch) and "Dao"  and "wan wu" (tenthousend things).

    Seiryoku Zenyo is means, methodology and of yang nature. Without the ultimate purpose of Jita Kyoei, one can actually become more effective and efficient in harming other people, and oneself too.
    I had the same question/thought a time ago and a brief discussion with wdax.

    As you know, "sei ryoku zen yo" lit "mind body best use" the central term is "zen" 善 ... What is "best"?

    Is it only the best use in form of efficiency or is there also an ethical meaning/implication?

    Quote wdax:

    "Zen" 善 means "good" or "for good purpose". Seiryoku-zenyo clearly is a moral principle: To use one´s physical and mental power with maximum efficiency to do good things". Please remember that it is shortened form seiryoku-kaizen-katsuyo. But there is no definition of what is good or not, so jita-kyo´ei was added. "Good is, what leads to mutual welfare - physical, moral and mental".

    My anser to wdax:

    I do not read japanese but in chinese the hanzi "shan4" (zen) means both: "good" and also "virtuous".

    If this is the same in japanese, "Seiryoku zenyo" has clearly a moral component too.

    ...

    From my point of view, you can eliminate "jita kyoei" and have only one principle in Judo IF you know, what the best use of energies (mind and body) means in an ethical context and everyday life. In fact, there are very different views, what is the "best ethics" and what is "the best society" and "mutual welfare and benefit" and "peace and harmony" and "selfperfection" are no clear answers to these questions.

    Some may think, this is spliiting hair, but in religion and philosophy and politics and economy the answers can differ from Buddhism to Salafism and from Anarchism to Absolutism, from  Liberalism/Capitalism to Communism and so on and so on - and all exponents of every single  ideology would say, this is for the mutual benefitand welfare  of all and for peace and harmony ...
    Thank you, Anatol. Interesting points.

    Certainly Kanô shihan knew the Confucian classics (referring to an earlier post by you), and even taught them in his juku / private school. There are numerous primary references to this.

    In fact, during his engagement with key Chinese government officials regarding the development of China's modern education system, he stressed that China should base its new system on Confucianism, as Western philosophies and pedagogies were not suitable for the Chinese culture.

    Kanô shihan himself often wrote just Seiryoku Zen'yô 精力善用, leaving out 'jita kyôei', perhaps in confirmation of your point. While there are huge numbers of copies and fakes, here's an example:



    These sayings developed over time; there are a number of articles that explore the sequence and their development (which I don't have time to find today). Seiryoku Zen'yô Jita Kyôei was the final, full form, but I wonder if Kanô shihan added the final phrase to spell out the correct ethical context for folks without his background.

    noboru

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    Two sayings from year 1900 originaly from Kodokan magazine, Kokushi

    Post by noboru on Wed Feb 03, 2016 5:48 pm

    NBK wrote:
    These sayings developed over time; there are a number of articles that explore the sequence and their development (which I don't have time to find today).  Seiryoku Zen'yô Jita Kyôei was the final, full form, but I wonder if Kanô shihan added the final phrase to spell out the correct ethical context for folks without his background.    

    Two sayings from year 1900 originaly from Kodokan magazine, Kokushi (1888-1903) - The text below is from chapter "Ju-no-ri" and Beyond from book Jigoro Kano and the Kodokan - An Innovative Response To Modernisation - page 32

    Kano obviously belived judo techniques required more than just jú-no-ri to be successful. This prompted him to reflect on other possibilities to explain the mental and physical mechanics of unarmed combat. For example, in a 1900 edition of Kokushi he wrote, "When executing nage-waza, the most important requirement is to utilise the minimum amount of power necessary to control your opponent art will". He also explained how this concept could be aplied to social interaction.

    "People can make use of the spiritual energy they are endowed with to benefit the world they live in. There are many different ways in which this energy can be applied. People often fail to complete what they start by pouring their energies into different activities simultaneously. Concentrate your energies on one undertaking and strive to finish what you start; then begin something else one completed... Nurture your mental amd physical strength and make use of your energies in the most efficient way."

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Wed Feb 03, 2016 9:27 pm

    Hi Noboru

    Kano obviously belived judo techniques required more than just jú-no-ri to be successful. This prompted him to reflect on other possibilities to explain the mental and physical mechanics of unarmed combat. For example, in a 1900 edition of Kokushi he wrote, "When executing nage-waza, the most important requirement is to utilise the minimum amount of power necessary to control your opponent art will".
    Kano was great in systemizing and structuring.

    A modern answer on a similar topic:

    Biomechanical Reassessment of the Scientific Foundations of Jigorō Kanō’s Kōdōkan Jūdō by Attilio Sacripanti

    Tsukuri General Action Invariants

    Tsukuri, as previously stated, refers to the entire class of actions to bring the couple of athletes in the desired position in which one athlete can throw the opponent with minimal waste of energy. Obviously, these movements are infinite in number; however, they pursue one common and definite objective: to shorten the mutual distance. Indeed, this is a common aspect of the infinite number of situations that might arise. Biomechanical analysis of this aspect shows some very interesting properties. It turns out that there are in fact only three classes of actions (trajectories of movements) that at the same time involve minimal energy and strive to achieve minimal distance.
    In jūdō, that what we term Action Invariant refers to the minimal path, in time (like the Fermat principles in optics) of the body’s shift, necessary to acquire the best kuzushi and tsukuri position for every jūdō throw.

    Conversely, in those cases where it is actually possible to identify such a minimum action, or Action Invariant , the two following biomechanical axioms apply:

    a) Best is the Judo Technique, minimum is the Athletes’ energy consumption.

    b) Best is the Judo Technique, minimum is the Athletes’ trajectory for positioning

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Wed Feb 03, 2016 9:45 pm

    Hi NBK

    These sayings developed over time; there are a number of articles that explore the sequence and their development (which I don't have time to find today). Seiryoku Zen'yô Jita Kyôei was the final, full form, but I wonder if Kanô shihan added the final phrase to spell out the correct ethical context for folks without his background.
    In my opinion, this is a good assumption. If you think about the development of Kodokan Judo and the development of japanese society in the first three decades of the 20th century, the reminder on "mutual welfare and benefit" is a very good one. Asian philosophy in general is not as analytical and epistemological (exception is traditional Buddhism but not Zen and religious buddhism) and outspoken as western philosophy and has always a focus on practice and ethics and living together. In asian philosophy it's very important, that society is orderly and in harmony.

    Values in Confucianism:

    - Five Constants (Rén 仁 humaneness) Yì (義 righteousness) Lǐ (禮 proper rite) Zhì (智 knowledge) Xìn (信 integrity)

    - Four Virtues (Zhōng 忠, loyalty); Xiào (孝, filial piety); Jié (節, continency); Yì (義, righteousness)

    - Five Great Relationships : ruler to ruled, father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother, friend to friend

    and some more like

    chéng (誠, honesty)
    shù (恕, kindness and forgiveness)
    lián (廉, honesty and cleanness)
    chǐ (恥, shame, judge and sense of right and wrong)
    yǒng (勇, bravery)
    wēn (溫, kind and gentle)
    liáng (良, good, kindhearted)
    gōng (恭, respectful, reverent)
    jiǎn (儉, frugal)
    ràng (讓, modestly, self-effacing)


    The Analects (Edited Conversations) - teachings of Confucius:

    http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/analects.html


    Last edited by Anatol on Thu Feb 04, 2016 12:08 am; edited 4 times in total

    Reinberger

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Reinberger on Wed Feb 03, 2016 9:54 pm

    Anatol,

    thank you for your response to my above reply. Of course we agree, that goals and aims have to be valuable and meaningful, to be worth to pursue them at all.

    Regarding possible different "ways" to do that: while I also wrote about varying "ways", what I really meant were varying tracks and lines within the boundaries of one and the same way.

    While, for example, there may be more than just one possibility to resolve a certain task according to the principle of Seiryoku zenyō within the way that is called "Jūdō", skillful solutions of the same or a very similar task, may be (technically, at least) very different in the context of a different way like Kendō.

    noboru wrote:"People can make use of the spiritual energy they are endowed with to benefit the world they live in. There are many different ways in which this energy can be applied. People often fail to complete what they start by pouring their energies into different activities simultaneously. Concentrate your energies on one undertaking and strive to finish what you start; then begin something else one completed... Nurture your mental and physical strength and make use of your energies in the most efficient way."

    Noboru,

    while I think that's one of the characteristics of (of course not only) Budō-training, to read it explained as generally as here, IMHO constitutes a remarkable quote, especially coming from Kanō Jigorō and considering whose own life, so full of (quite successful) dedications to "different activities simultaneously".


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    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Thu Feb 04, 2016 12:39 am

    Hi Robert,

    thanks for your respond too.

    what I really meant were varying tracks and lines within the boundaries of one and the same way.

    While, for example, there may be more than just one possibility to resolve a certain task according to the principle of Seiryoku zenyō within the way that is called "Jūdō", skillful solutions of the same or a very similar task, may be (technically, at least) very different in the context of a different way like Kendō.
    The problem is - we know from practice and testing, what Judo as a martial art (bu jutsu) is because of "ju no ri" and "seiryoku zenyo"  but we don't know, what is  the "best" way in  ethics and for society. "Jita Kyoei" gives no answer to that, because we can have very different opinions, what "mutual welfare and benefit" and "peace and harmony in society" are. If you only refer to Dojo practice with "jita kyoei" it's o.k. and not specific to Judo because you have this principle in all cooperations and associations and even in chess clubs or clubs for philatelist  but Kano wanted to introduce "jita kyoei" as a fundamental principle of life and ethics - which it isn't because it is to less and too vague.

    "Seiryoku zenyo" - maybe - is a fundamental principle because you see it in nature and physics (energy is not wasted ) and it's not a naturalistic fallacy (doing conclusions from "is" to "good" or from descriptive to normative)  to apply this principle to Judo in a technical way. The "Do" of Judo has to have a deeper and broader  principle than "jita kyoei" because "mutual welfare and benefit" is too vague.

    Reinberger

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Reinberger on Thu Feb 04, 2016 2:33 am

    Anatol,

    thanks, I think I already got that point, as you mentioned it in several posts. And I agree that the critique, emanating from these explanations, is appropriate, as, indeed, "we can have very different opinions, what 'mutual welfare and benefit' and 'peace and harmony in society' are. Especially "peace and harmony in society" can be results of a very violent and suppressing regime, for example, which the majority of us here arguably would not consider to count as "valuable goal".

    But aren't you also contradicting yourself a little bit, when you, in contrast, seem to (sort of) "approve" the principle of "Seiryoku zenyō", while you wrote, quoting yourself, as you did?
    I do not read japanese but in chinese the hanzi "shan4" (zen) means both: "good" and also "virtuous". If this is the same in japanese, "Seiryoku zenyo" has clearly a moral component too.
    If "Seiryoku zenyō", too, includes the turn from descriptive to normative ("good"), than it seems to be as problematic, as you describe "Jita Kyōei".

    Now, on to my personal, naturally subjective take on the normative quality of the (vague) principle(s) in question: Isn't it exactly this vagueness, that demands an understanding, which is oriented only at the most commonly accepted values? Values like Human rights, a democratic structure of society, or - as even those concepts may be viewed differently - at that fundamental "regula aurea", aka "golden rule": "Do as you would be done by"? And wouldn't that alone - regardless of the idealistic and escapist nature of such a claim - lead to a widely acceptable, (more) "peaceful and harmonic society", as well as to "mutual welfare and benefit"?


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    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Thu Feb 04, 2016 4:02 am

    Hi Robert

    If "Seiryoku zenyō", too, includes the turn from descriptive to normative ("good"), than it seems to be as problematic, as you describe "Jita Kyōei".
    Indeed - it is. This was exactly the reason why I wrote:

    From my point of view, you can eliminate "jita kyoei" and have only one principle in Judo IF you know, what the best use of energies (mind and body) means in an ethical context and everyday life.
    IF you already know, what is ethical, moral, wise, fair THEN "seiryoku zenyo" is a reminder to use your energies (mind and body) in a "best way" which is also a "good way" in terms of virtue and ethics.

    Now, on to my personal, naturally subjective take on the normative quality of the (vague) principle(s) in question: Isn't it exactly this vagueness, that demands an understanding, which is oriented only at the most commonly accepted values? Values like Human rights, a democratic structure of society, or - as even those concepts may be viewed differently - at that fundamental "regula aurea", aka "golden rule": "Do as you would be done by"? And wouldn't that alone - regardless of the idealistic and escapist nature of such a claim - lead to a widely acceptable, (more) "peaceful and harmonic society", as well as to "mutual welfare and benefit"?
    Exactly. That's the point, what an ethics of virtue would claim like Aristototeles and Confucius or more modern Communitarism. The trouble is - virtues are vague as "jita kyoei" is vague and "peace and harmony" also. Human rights are not vague, because they are claimed and written as laws but their source is the idea of humanism and the Enlightenment. You have to do a lot of arguments that all human are equal in rights - that is not obvious. Some naive think, human rights are like an eternal law or manna from heaven - in fact they are the result of hundreds of years of philosophical and political debate and fights.

    If you see "jita kyoei" as a reminder, that Judoka and Judo are in a broader moral and social context and not only for fighting and winning, this is alright but if you see "jita kyoei" as an universal fundamental principle, then you have to explain how exactly a society should be based and build on "mutual welfare and benefit" and why.

    Reinberger

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Reinberger on Thu Feb 04, 2016 4:30 am

    Hi Anatol,

    I see where you come from.

    Anatol wrote:Human rights are not vague, because they are claimed and written but their source is the idea of humanism and the Enlightenment. ...
    The reason, I included them, when I wrote "... as even those concepts may be viewed differently ..." is the simple fact, that, for example, in addition (or, perhaps even better: "in contrast"?) to the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" the "Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam" also was issued and written, a clear reference, that not even the former is without controversy, after all those hundreds of years of philosophical and political debate and fights you mentioned.


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    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Thu Feb 04, 2016 10:12 am

    Kanô shihan, to my understanding, never wrote a single, clear explanation of his philosophy. Rather, he wrote a number of essays over time that showed his thoughts and the development.

    In his late 50's, he wrote an essay focusing on the importance of selfless impartiality, but later wrote of the importance of the kokutai, the national polity, which indicates that he placed importance on the support of the Emperor system and the state. This would be consistent with my understanding of Confucianism, with the Five Great Relationships cited earlier by Anatol:

    Values in Confucianism:

    - Five Constants (Rén 仁 humaneness) Yì (義 righteousness) Lǐ (禮 proper rite) Zhì (智 knowledge) Xìn (信 integrity)

    - Four Virtues (Zhōng 忠, loyalty); Xiào (孝, filial piety); Jié (節, continency); Yì (義, righteousness)

    - Five Great Relationships : ruler to ruled,
    father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother, friend to friend

    and some more like

    chéng (誠, honesty)
    shù (恕, kindness and forgiveness)
    lián (廉, honesty and cleanness)
    chǐ (恥, shame, judge and sense of right and wrong)
    yǒng (勇, bravery)
    wēn (溫, kind and gentle)
    liáng (良, good, kindhearted)
    gōng (恭, respectful, reverent)
    jiǎn (儉, frugal)
    ràng (讓, modestly, self-effacing)

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Thu Feb 04, 2016 12:34 pm

    Further to my own point that Kanô shihan did in fact know well the Chinese Confucian classics, in looking up something else, today I found a calligraphy by Kanô shihan:

    居天下之廣居,立天下之正位,行天下之大道。
    得志與民由之,不得志獨行其道。
    富貴不能淫,貧賤不能移,威武不能屈。
    此之謂大丈夫。

    In context (in bold below), it is the oft-quoted portion of an exchange between Mencius, the second most famous Confucian scholar after Confucius himself, and a questioner.

    滕文公下: Teng Wen Gong II:
    景春曰:「公孫衍、張儀豈不誠大丈夫哉?一怒而諸侯懼,安居而天下熄。」
    Jing Chun said to Mencius, 'Are not Gong Sun Yan and Zhang Yi really great men? Let them once be angry, and all the princes are afraid. Let them live quietly, and the flames of trouble are extinguished throughout the kingdom.'

    孟子曰:「是焉得為大丈夫乎?子未學禮乎?丈夫之冠也,父命之;女子之嫁也,母命之,往送之門,戒之曰:『往之女家,必敬必戒,無違夫子!』以順為正者,妾婦之道也。居天下之廣居,立天下之正位,行天下之大道。得志與民由之,不得志獨行其道。富貴不能淫,貧賤不能移,威武不能屈。此之謂大丈夫。」
    Mencius said, 'How can such men be great men? Have you not read the Ritual Usages? "At the capping of a young man, his father admonishes him. At the marrying away of a young woman, her mother admonishes her, accompanying her to the door on her leaving, and cautioning her with these words, 'You are going to your home. You must be respectful; you must be careful. Do not disobey your husband.'" Thus, to look upon compliance as their correct course is the rule for women.

    To dwell in the wide house of the world, to stand in the correct seat of the world, and to walk in the great path of the world; when he obtains his desire for office, to practice his principles for the good of the people; and when that desire is disappointed, to practice them alone; to be above the power of riches and honors to make dissipated, of poverty and mean condition to make swerve from principle, and of power and force to make bend - these characteristics constitute the great man.'

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Thu Feb 04, 2016 11:42 pm

    Hi Lance

    There are not many good sources about Confucianism on the internet but these two links are concise:

    Self Cultivation in Confucianism:

    http://www.iep.utm.edu/confuciu/#H6

    Confucius' Ethics:

    http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/#ConEth


    P.S.:

    And as always it's good to read the classics in the original

    http://wengu.tartarie.com/wg/wengu.php

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Fri Feb 05, 2016 1:45 pm

    Anatol,
    Thanks for the above references. There are better ones every year or so, it seems. Those are really good, thanks!
    Lance

    noboru

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    The Three Levels of Judo

    Post by noboru on Sat Feb 06, 2016 9:20 am

    From Mind Over Muscle: Writings from the founder of Judo, pp94-5:

    The Three Levels of Judo
    We have now established judo's three aspects -- training for defense against attack, cultivation of the mind and body, and putting one's energy to use. We have also affirmed judo's highest goal as self-perfection for the betterment of society. For the sake of convenience, let us place the foundation -- training for defense against attack -- at the bottom and call it lower level judo. Let us call training and cultivation, which are by-products of training for defense against attack, middle-level judo. The study of how to put one's energy to use in society comes last, so let us call it upper level-judo.

    When we divide judo into these three levels, we can see that it must not be limited to training for fighting in the dojo, and even if you train your body and cultivate your mind, if you do not go a level higher, you truly cannot benefit society. No matter how great a person you are, if you die without achieving anything, as the proverb says: "Unused treasure is a wasted treasure." It can be said that you perfected yourself, but it cannot be said that you contributed to society. I urge all practitioners of judo to recognize that it consists of these three levels and to undergo their training without undue emphasis of one aspect over another.
    -- Jigoro Kano, founder of Judo


    Is used for the upper level-judo the name jodan judo? I found that the term "jodan judo" is used by some judo sensei (Draeger, Ohlekamph)

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Mon Feb 22, 2016 8:52 pm

    Hi Noboru

    - Practice (learning)

    - (Self)Cultivation (refining)

    - Contribution to Society (to serve and leading)

    This is a quite common concept in Confucianism.

    The Exemplary Man (Junzi)

    http://www.academia.edu/10977391/Junzi_or_the_Exemplary_Man_An_Introduction_to_the_Confucian_Gentleman

    Somewhere I read, that Kano Jigoros father-in-law was Professor in Chinese (classic) Literature.

    noboru

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    JUDO OUTSIDE THE DOJO

    Post by noboru on Tue Mar 29, 2016 10:48 pm


    JUDO OUTSIDE THE DOJO

    Contests in judo have as their rationale the idea that the lessons taught in matches will find application not only in future training but in the world at large. Here I would like to point out five basic principles and show briefly how they operate in the social realm.

    First is the maxim which says that one should pay close attention to the relationship between self and other. To take an example, before making an attack, one should note his opponent's weight, build, strong points, temperament and so on. He should be nonetheless aware of his own strengths and weaknesses, and his eye should critically assess his surroundings. In the days when matches were held outdoors, he would inspect the area for such things as rocks, ditches, walls and the like. In the dojo, he takes note of walls, people or other potential obstructions. If a person has carefully observed everything, then the correct means of defeating an opponent will naturally become apparent.

    The second point has to do with taking the lead. Players of board games like chess and go are familiar with the strategy of making a move that will entice the other player to move in a certain way. This concept is clearly applicable to both judo and our daily lives.

    Stated succinctly, the third point is: Consider fully, act decisively. The first phrase is closely related to the first point above, that is, a man should meticulously evaluate his adversary before executing a technique. This done, the advice given in the second phrase is followed automatically. To act decisively means to do so without hesitation and without second thoughts.

    Having shown how to proceed, I would now like to advise you when to stop. This can be stated quite simply. When a predetermined point has been reached, it is time to cease applying the technique, or whatever.

    The fifth and final point evokes the very essence of judo. It is contained in the saying: Walk a single path, becoming neither cocky with victory nor broken with defeat, without forgetting caution when all is quiet or becoming frightened when danger threatens. Implicit here is the admonition that if we let ourselves be carried away by success, defeat will inevitably follow victory. It also means that one should always be prepared for a contest-even the moment after scoring a victory. Whether a person's surroundings are calm or turbulent, he should always exploit whatever means are at hand to accomplish his purpose.

    The student of judo should bear these five principles in mind. Applied in the work place, the school, the political world or any other area of society, he will find that the benefits are great.

    To sum up, judo is a mental and physical discipline whose lessons are readily applicable to the management of our daily affairs. The fundamental principle of judo, one that governs all the techniques of attack and defense, is that whatever the objective, it is best attained by the maximum-efficient use of mind and body for that purpose. The same principle applied to our everyday activities leads to the highest and most rational life.

    Training in the techniques of judo is not the only way to grasp this universal principle, but it is how I arrived at an understanding of it, and it is the means by which I attempt to enlighten others.

    The principle of maximum efficiency, whether applied to the art of attack and defense or to refining and perfecting daily life, demands above all that there be order and harmony among people. This can be realized only through mutual aid and concession. The result is mutual welfare and benefit. The final aim of judo practice is to inculcate respect for the principles of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit. Through judo, persons individually and collectively attain their highest spiritual state while at the same time developing their bodies and learning the art of attack and defense.


    Source: http://www.yoshinjujitsu.com/kodokan_judo_article.htm

    It is from book “Kodokan Judo”, reprinted by Kodansha International Ltd., 1986

    noboru

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    Calligraphy and Philosophy of Prof. Jigoro Kano

    Post by noboru on Thu May 12, 2016 6:24 pm

    Source: http://100yearlegacy.org/english/Kano_Jigoro/Calligraphy/

    Calligraphy and Philosophy of Prof. Jigoro Kano

    Prof. Jigoro Kano learned calligraphy and Chinese literature since he was young. Prof. Kano was also a master of calligraphy and was left a number of works to his disciples. His calligraphy can be found not only in those phrases from “Shisho-gokyô (the Four Books and Five Classics of Confucianism, known as the Nine Chinese Classics /四書五経)” but also from his own coined words.

    Kendo Yokoyama (1872-1943), a writer and reviewer, described Kano’s writings as:

    Kano’s writings reveal a fluid, semi-cursive style, vigorous, full of spirit and ultimately free as illustrated.
    (Kendo Yokoyama, Prof. Jigoro Kano, 1931: 31)
    One of Kano’s disciples, Muneo Shioya M.D., examined the number of phrases Kano used in his calligraphy the following words repeatedly (Kano Jigoro, Kodonkan ed., 1964: 665).

    Jyundô-Seïsyô / 順道制勝 81
    Seiryoku-Zenyo / 精力善用 66
    Tsutomureba Kanarazu Tassu / 力必達 21
    Shin-shin Jizai / 心身自在 12
    Jinryoku / 尽力 11
    Onore wo Nashite Yo wo Ekisu / 成己益世 8
    Seiryoku Saizen Katsuyo / 精力最善活用 5
    Jita-Kyoeï / 自他共栄 5
    Onore wo Nasu/ 己成 5
    Shu-ko Chijin / 修己治人 3
    It is claimed that there are up to 226 writings Prof. Kano left.

    Among others, the most frequent phrase written was “順道制勝 (Jyundô-Seïsyô).” This phrase highlights Kano’s belief that: “regardless of winning or losing, you need to follow the right path and, even if you lose by following this right path, it is more valuable than winning being against the path." (Jigoro Kano, “In the spirit of cultural philosophy of Kodokan Judo”, in Yuko-no Katsudou, Vol.8, No.2, 1922).

    Prof. Kano’s calligraphy illustrates his values in education and judo and his wish for world peace. Kano’s message in calligraphy, which can still be found hung on the walls of Judojôs (training place for judo) and schools across Japan, provides a strong message to this date.

    Jigoro Kano’s Penname

    Prof. Kano’s penname, until he was 60, was “Kônan (甲南).” During his 60's, he wrote under the name “Shinkosaï (進乎斎)” changing it again to “Ki-Issaï (帰一斎)” in his 70’s.

    The name “Kônan” was chosen after Rokko mountain (六甲山) near Kano’s hometown, and hence this was chosen as his first penname.

    “Shinkosaï” was inspired by a phrase of Zhuangzi (荘子), an ancient Chinese philosopher. Echoing an ancient story regarding a cook who valued “the way” more than skills, Prof. Kano intended to include the value-based meaning in his penname “Shinkosaï” stressing the importance of pursuing one's path as a human being rather than acquiring skills.

    It is presumed that “Ki-Itsu (帰一)” of “Ki-Issaï (帰一斎)” represents the phrase of the Chinese Confucianist , “even though hundreds of royal laws would not be the same, things come back to the same place (百王乃法不同 所帰者一也).”

    In 1912, Eichi Shibusawa and Jinzo Naruse founded “Ki-Itsu Association (帰一協会)” aiming to further study the fundamental principles shared in ethics, religion, and philosophies. With this kind of social trend, Prof. Kano also pursued his fundamental principle.

    He mentioned that, “to expound the moral philosophy, it would be possible to do so based on a certain theory or religion for those people who have a theory or religion themselves. However, for those who don’t have any, it would be very difficult to make them understood. Unless the moral philosophy is expounded grounded on the fundamental principle that anyone can comprehend, it would be difficult to expound and prevail the moral philosophy in a real sense.”

    He continued by stressing that “this means Jita-Kyoei…as long as people live together, the mutual reconciliation and collaboration is essential; people should concede and assist each other.” (Jigoro Kano dictation by Torahei Ochiai, “Kano Jigoro as Judoka, 6”, in Sakkô, Vol.7, No.4, 1928).

    Kano therefore intended to express his fundamental principles of “Jita-Kyoei” by using his penname, “Ki-Issaï” with the belief that the principle can be accepted for all the people.

    (Article supported by Prof. Hisashi Sanada, University of Tsukuba)

    noboru

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    The meaning of onore wo tsukushite naru wo matsu

    Post by noboru on Wed Sep 14, 2016 11:44 pm

    From http://kodokanjudoinstitute.org/en/doctrine/word/do-your-best/

    The meaning of onore wo tsukushite naru wo matsu
    The Essential Point: You must first devote every bit of your own energy to your venture and then await success or accomplishment. It is foolish to blame failure on fate when you haven't yet used up all your strength. Before you hope for good fortune, first exhaust your own strength. Neither should you lament your bad luck in failing and abandon your attempt. Wait for accomplishment without giving up diligence or patience. The successful man carves out his own destiny as the result of efforts beyond the limit of effort.
    **************************
    The expression onore wo tsukushite naru wo matsu ("do your best and await the result") is the most important admonition to those who seek to achieve something in this world. * * *
    Success is realized through a combination of talent and destiny. No matter how great one's talent, if destiny is unfavorable, then success cannot be obtained. And no matter how fortunate one's destiny, if talent is lacking, then success will surely never be realized. * * *

    However, there are those in this world who do not make clear the relationship between these two, but instead tend to go to one extreme or another, and the ill effects of that ruin their whole lives. You must take care. There are people of superior perception and brilliance who are yet unaware of the relationship between destiny and success. They strain impatiently for success, calling on all the knowledge within them and applying all of their talents in an effort to realize a great achievement as quickly as possible. However, nothing can happen until its proper day has come. Thus, when they see that they have been unable to accomplish what they had anticipated, they lament how affairs did not go as they wished and immediately fly to the opposite extreme, claiming that people are ruled by destiny in all things. Despite their former passion and diligent effort, they give up on themselves and live the rest of their lives in disappointment.

    There are also ordinary people who attempt to do something yet do not succeed, causing them to conclude that their own abilities were inferior and inadequate to the task. They do not think to advance further and work on refining their own abilities, but rather give up and never look back.

    Then there are those who vainly rely upon destiny, as though they expect the heavens to rain down gold where they sit and gold to come welling up out of the earth in front of them, but never make any effort themselves.

    These are all errors that arise from the failure to accept destiny, when you do not do your best and await the result. We must always keep this in mind.


    In other words, the path we should pursue starts with doing our best. Before we wish for good luck, we must first bear our own responsibilities. What people see as bad luck is actually not destiny gone wrong. It may be that we have fallen short of doing our best. There is negligence in our method, inadequacy in our diligence, or deficiency in our knowledge and preparation. If the ends are then not achieved, the reason does not lie in fate. It lies in the person. When the responsibility lies in the person, how can it be anything but a mistake to blame fate?
    It is said that the wise man carves out his own destiny, and it is also said that the sage transforms errors into good fortune. What these sayings mean is that results come from doing our best. When people have not done their best and then talk about their fate, this is not actually their real fate. When we have not done our best, how are we supposed to know what our fate truly is?
    If we do our best and still do not achieve the results we seek, this means that our destiny is still not possible for us to realize. Just because our destiny is not possible, that certainly does not mean that we should despair. We should not fall into disappointment. We should exercise our abilities to the fullest, be diligent and patient, and await the result. We should not abandon the path that we are supposed to follow just because we believe our destiny to be a certain way. To give up on ourselves and then hope for good fortune is to be nothing but a dreaming fool. * * *
    We should neither boast of good fortune nor feel frustrated by misfortune, but instead be diligent and persevere as we await the result.
    **************************
    Jigoro Kano, " onore wo tsukushite naru wo matsu " in Kokushi No. 62 (1903)

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Thu Sep 15, 2016 11:10 am

    In the thread above 'Calligraphy and Philosophy of Prof. Kano' Noboru quoted:
    One of Kano’s disciples, Muneo Shioya M.D., examined the number of phrases Kano used in his calligraphy the following words repeatedly (Kano Jigoro, Kodokan ed., 1964: 665).

    That is a translation error. Dr. Shionoya Muneo was not a medical doctor, but rather a doctor of literature, and the judo shihan at the Tokyo Higher Normal School after Kano shihan retired.

    Interesting guy - developed his own martial art after Kano shihan passed away, 'combining the essence' of judo, karatedo, sumo etc. into a single, comprehensive martial art. At least that was the idea - it was not well received. I tracked down his family some years ago to conduct some research.

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

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