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    Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

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    Cichorei Kano

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Sun Sep 14, 2014 4:23 pm


    Thanks.


    Last edited by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:49 pm; edited 2 times in total


    _________________


    "The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
    "Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
    "Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
    "I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Sun Sep 14, 2014 9:53 pm

    Hi CK


    "Good use of Energy" has a trap: good - better - best - maximum. If you strive for perfection you will never get it, because life is not perfect and so is man. If you try to be perfect, you will use a lot more energy, which is needed spoken in relation to work, moral, relationship and so on - it will turn against you. You dont have to be perfect, to get optimal results, you dont have to be a saint, to have a rich und happy life. Some people ar lucky and be born smart, some are even smarter and be born lucky ... Perfect controll of life is an illusion and also that good work or deeds are followed by justice or merit.

    "Good use of Energy" also means not to waste energy for destruction and bad habits or relationship with destructive people or to be blended with the past or attracted by the hopes and wishes and so on. God use of energy is connected with naturalness and simplicity and as the daoist say with an empty heart and a clear and quiet spirit. High ideals can be frustrating and exhausting for one who strives for perfection and sees the best and optimal in the past (like confucians or some judoka ...) and as I said perfection will turn against you. I am not looking for the very best, maximum etc - sometimes it happens but I see it as a gift and not as product of my efforts.

    "Good use of Energy" is a much broader principle of Life and Judo has its specific applications, but Judo is only one (tiny) part of it.


    Hi Mr. Reinberger

    Do you not think, that, on the other hand, "Jita kyō-ei" as well can be, and should be, applied within the practise of Jūdō, by sensei as well, as by sempai, for example? Do you think, for emotional reasons as well as for health reasons, many beginners could be kept in a dōjō long enough, where it is completely neglected?
    Sure! As Judo is at first for an education for kids, like in every education you should educate the whole person not only the skills of body like coordination, flexibility, speed, power and endurance but also character, the intellect and the spirit, social skills and behavior and that they are helping each over and so on. Adults should be grown up and know, how they treat each other especially when they are doing the same sport. If not, every association and even every club has its rules for social conduct and this isn't specially connected to Judo and the "Judo Etiquette" is not even special in its subjects or rules and also not in "Jita Kyoei". To help each other and to prospect together is the normal course for all unions - that is, why it is called "union" ;-)

    .

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Sun Sep 14, 2014 10:17 pm

    Hi CK

    I will address your question about "Jū yoku go wo seisuru" at another point in time. By the way, many Western popular judo books have attributed this maxim to Kanō too, though it long predates Kanō, but that shouldn’t even be a surprise anymore …

    Thats pretty clear, because it is a quote from


    Laozi 36

    If you would have a thing shrink,
    You must first stretch it;
    If you would have a thing weakened,
    You must first strengthen it;
    If you would have a thing laid aside,
    You must first set it up;
    If you would take from a thing,
    You must first give to it.

    This is called subtle discernment:
    The submissive (rou) and weak (ruo) will overcome the hard (gang) and strong (qiang).

    ...



    http://wengu.tartarie.com/wg/wengu.php?l=Daodejing&no=36


    The Laozi was written (compiled) about 320 - 250 before 0 in Ancient China (Age of Warring States)





    There are a lot more similar lines in the Daodejing (Laozi), which emphasis the flexible, soft, weak, yielding etc.


    .

    noboru

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    Kano's article Benefiting Oneself And Others

    Post by noboru on Mon Sep 15, 2014 1:22 am

    The book: Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano by Brian N. Watson - page 107 article Benefiting Oneself And Others

    75. Benefiting Oneself And Others

    This is an English rendition of one of my principles to be observed in life: jita kyoei. The difficulties of maintaining social harmony among people do not arise for the hermit. Social interaction for most people, however, exposes them to the possibility that their actions and the views that they express will at times clash with those of others. This can lead to disagreements and to mistrust which often results in disadvantages to both parties. Therefore, in order for one to live peaceably with one's fellows, a relationship fostering mutual help and co-operation in preferable. This means that we should be willing to give consideration to the opinions of others and to show an inclination to compromise. That is to say, we should adopt the practice of bringing benefits not only to ourselves but also to others.
    We must not be merely passive citizens, but make efforts to promote this mode of social intercourse and contribute to the advancement of society. One should never oppose this principle. For obvious reasons, a man who chooses to cut himself off from normal interaction with others and live in seclusion usually cannot live a meaningful existence. Therefore, it is in our own best interests that each of us should strive in some way for betterment of society. In other words, our own moral conduct needs to be exemplary if we are to set an example and so influence others.
    Few would oppose moral codes based on such a precept nor would this fact be ignored by adherents of Confucianism, Buddhism or for that matter Christianity. Clerics often expound exemplary moral coduct, which is accepted and respected by faithful. However, teh principles and methods favored by varying religious groups differ somewhat. In the case of education, for example, respect for the Imperial Rescript, which is based on the teachings of only one religious sect, can be misplaced. If one religion is deemed to be favored in the rescript, adherents of other faiths may well choose to ignore it. Nevertheless, the 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education was universally compatible when introduced and has been increasingly accepted by many Japanese people. Largely due to reverence for the emperor, both at home and among Japanese communities abroad, the rescript has become widely favored. In late 1922, I too eventually, supported national recognition of this moral code.

    Cichorei Kano

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:24 am


    Thanks.


    Last edited by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:50 pm; edited 2 times in total


    _________________


    "The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
    "Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
    "Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
    "I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."

    NBK

    Posts : 1059
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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Mon Sep 15, 2014 3:20 am

    Cichorei Kano wrote:
    Anatol wrote:
    Hi CK

    Yes it es similar in striving and aim but it totally lacks the aspect of selfcultivation (there is no self in buddhism), selfperfection, selfdevelopment, development of moral and character and development of society as in Kano's "jita kyoei". It's more an universal connectivity and amity and compasion. At the end there will be happiness and peace for all but :-) this is also true für christianity, utilitarism and even communism.

    How do you live "seiryoku zenyo" and "jita kyoei" in your everyday life?

    Have these two principles influenced your work or your relationship to other beings or your way in general/specific? How?

    It is not that simple. The Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra does teach the existence of a Self or Ātman आत्मन्. In Buddhism the The Five Skandhas ar what make up an individual, i.e.: consciousness, for, mental formation, perception, and sensation. However, they don't result in a self, and are in essence empty. Ego is just created as some kind of ... "along the side", but is not real. In Theravada Buddhism this ego is considered just an illusion, but in Mahāyāna Buddhism it is more along the lines you describe with us more being part of some general experience. On the other hand self-knowledge is a critical thing in Zen-Buddhism. But irrespective of whatever concern you may have about this, may I point out that about all the goals of the Kōdōkan jūdō's final teachings (the Koshiki-no-kata and Itsutsu-no-kata) are Buddhist and Zen-Buddhist. Oops, so much for Kanō supposedly being anti-religious and only willing to embrace clean Confucianism, yes, that same Kanô whose heritage was one of ... Shintō priests !

    .....

    Anatol wrote:Hi CK

    I will address your question about "Jū yoku go wo seisuru" at another point in time. By the way, many Western popular judo books have attributed this maxim to Kanō too, though it long predates Kanō, but that shouldn’t even be a surprise anymore …

    Thats pretty clear, because it is a quote from Laozi 36

    If you would have a thing shrink,
    You must first stretch it;
    If you would have a thing weakened,
    You must first strengthen it;
    If you would have a thing laid aside,
    You must first set it up;
    If you would take from a thing,
    You must first give to it.

    This is called subtle discernment:
    The submissive (rou) and weak (ruo) will overcome the hard (gang) and strong (qiang).

    ...
    http://wengu.tartarie.com/wg/wengu.php?l=Daodejing&no=36

    The Laozi was written (compiled) about 320 - 250 before 0 in Ancient China (Age of Warring States)

    There are a lot more similar lines in the Daodejing (Laozi), which emphasis the flexible, soft, weak, yielding etc.
    I agree with Anatoly's view that Kano's writings and philosophies more clearly reflect Confucian thought; certainly there are isolated elements found in Buddhism, too, but there are certainly more numerous and integrated elements from Confucianism.

    But even if we accepted that Itsutsu no Kata and Koshiki no Kata contain elements from Buddhism and Zen Buddhism, as CK has pointed out time and again, Kano shihan did not create these kata. Does simply adopting them somehow overshadow much larger bodies of writing from other traditions? Did Kano shihan himself not write that he preserved KNK as a sort of honor of the old jujutsu schools? It would seem to me that he would have placed more significance on their seemingly esoteric aspects than is apparent if they held some role as the highest embodiment of .... what? Kano wrote that Kime no Kata was the core of judo, not Koshiki no Kata, not Itsutsu no Kata.

    Regarding working towards betterment, in writing about the significance of teacher education, he wrote:

    教育の事天下莫偉焉
    一人徳教広加万人
    一世化教遠及百世
    (see calligraphy at http://100yearlegacy.org/Kano_Jigoro/Calligraphy/images/sho07_zoom.gif

    Simply put, it cites importance of education in that by teaching one person ethics to one person you can affect 10,000; a single lifetime changes and that echoes through 100 lifetimes. He returns to this theme again and again. It seems hardly the sort of introversion typical of Zen Buddhism.

    Also, Kano didn't even know of his family's Shinto religious roots until introduced to his father's extended family when he was young boy; there's no evidence of much study of Shinto, but a great deal that he studied and supported Confucian education.

    Regarding the origin of the term 'softness overcomes hardness' Jū yoku go wo seisuru (which I hold is incorrect, as it should translated more complexly, such as flexibility/softness overcomes stiffness/hardness), in jujutsu lore the source is usually cited as one of the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, 黄石公三略(Huáng Shígōng Sānlüè) 黄石公三略 'also known as 太公兵法 Tàigōng Bīngfǎ', one of the Seven Military Classics, which dates from around 200BC to 0 CE. (It also happens to be the subject of the avatar I use on this forum.) The point is that the best strategy to win employs multiple forms, not single strategies. And the book is primarily seen as influenced by Confucian and Daoist philosophies.  

    noboru wrote:The book: Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano by Brian N. Watson - page 107 article Benefiting Oneself And Others

    75. Benefiting Oneself And Others

    This is an English rendition of one of my principles to be observed in life: jita kyoei. The difficulties of maintaining social harmony among people do not arise for the hermit. Social interaction for most people, however, exposes them to the possibility that their actions and the views that they express will at times clash with those of others. This can lead to disagreements and to mistrust which often results in disadvantages to both parties. Therefore, in order for one to live peaceably with one's fellows, a relationship fostering mutual help and co-operation in preferable. This means that we should be willing to give consideration to the opinions of others and to show an inclination to compromise. That is to say, we should adopt the practice of bringing benefits not only to ourselves but also to others.

    We must not be merely passive citizens, but make efforts to promote this mode of social intercourse and contribute to the advancement of society. One should never oppose this principle. For obvious reasons, a man who chooses to cut himself off from normal interaction with others and live in seclusion usually cannot live a meaningful existence. Therefore, it is in our own best interests that each of us should strive in some way for betterment of society. In other words, our own moral conduct needs to be exemplary if we are to set an example and so influence others.

    Few would oppose moral codes based on such a precept nor would this fact be ignored by adherents of Confucianism, Buddhism or for that matter Christianity. Clerics often expound exemplary moral coduct, which is accepted and respected by faithful. However, teh principles and methods favored by varying religious groups differ somewhat. In the case of education, for example, respect for the Imperial Rescript, which is based on the teachings of only one religious sect, can be misplaced. If one religion is deemed to be favored in the rescript, adherents of other faiths may well choose to ignore it. Nevertheless, the 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education was universally compatible when introduced and has been increasingly accepted by many Japanese people. Largely due to reverence for the emperor, both at home and among Japanese communities abroad, the rescript has become widely favored. In late 1922, I too eventually, supported national recognition of this moral code.

    That's a very interesting passage; it caught my eye earlier in English and in Japanese.

    Kano shihan for years had hesitations regarding the Imperial Rescript on Education. This was apparently not because he was explicitly anti-Shinto, or pro- another religion, but rather because of concerns about the lack of universality of a Shinto-based policy. I think he would have preferred a more secular education policy but finally gave in.

    Lance Gatling
    Tokyo


    Cichorei Kano

    Posts : 1948
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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 6:25 am

    Thanks.


    Last edited by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:39 pm; edited 1 time in total


    _________________


    "The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
    "Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
    "Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
    "I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."

    noboru

    Posts : 552
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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Mon Sep 15, 2014 7:08 am

    NBK wrote:
    Kano shihan for years had hesitations regarding the Imperial Rescript on Education.  This was apparently not because he was explicitly anti-Shinto, or pro- another religion, but rather because of concerns about the lack of universality of a Shinto-based policy. I think he would have preferred a more secular education policy but finally gave in.  

    Naoki Murata wrote about Kano's anti-religion opinion in part about presenting Kamidana in dojo in his text "Transitions within Kodokan Judo Etiquette". http://budo2008.nifs-k.ac.jp/pdf/murata_e.pdf

    IV.Dojo and Kamidana (Shinden)
    In the sense of belonging to a Budo dojo, a shrine was worshipped and the apprentices bow to the kamiza before
    and after training. How was it at the Kodokan?
    ‘As the author has already written in a previous publication, as in worshipping the imperial house, or respecting the
    gods like the imperial ancestors at Ise, religion is of no concern, other people can believe as they choose, religions in
    many cases aim at making profi ts in this world and think only of how to continue making profi ts in future, religions
    oppose each other and therefore the government has at present prohibited the teaching of religion in schools. In
    reality in countries around the world there is a trend towards not teaching religion in schools. Individuals do not find
    any support from being a member of one or another group or from worshipping some form of religion, for central
    organizations for all human kind where grand education is implemented like the Kodokan it is recognized as right to
    remain far removed from opposing religions. Dated, December 12 (reference 10)’.
    The above was written by Kano in reply to a personal opinion looking for the establishment of a shrine at the
    Kodokan. What can be seen, is that Kano does not recognize the need to establish a shrine and that he does recognize
    the appropriateness of remaining removed from religion. However, the Kodokan made public that on January 10,
    Showa 12 (1937) a shrine was worshipped during the opening ceremony near the seats of the honored guests inside
    the dojo. Therefore, at the Kodokan as well, one had to bow towards the kamiza.
    This was a Showa 10 (1935) resolution from the ‘Constitutional Proofs’, in May of the following year Showa 11
    (1936) in a report by a Ministry of Education’s Physical Education and Activities Supervisors Meeting it was decided
    to ‘establish shrines at dojo’s’, and because of this, the State as well as the social situation made a sharp turn to the
    right (reference 11), and that the Kodokan also wasn’t able to withstand the pressure.
    After the war this was abolished.

    noboru

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Mon Sep 15, 2014 7:42 am

    CK wrote:I am not suggesting at all that Kanō wanted to create a facade with this maxim, not at all. I am not “accusing” Kanō. I am merely pointing out that the maxim fails to withstand the test of realism because it lacks realism and that such is a crucial weakness that one needs to be aware of when engaging to realize this maxim. The fact that Kanō failed at realizing his own maxim was not because he was fake, but because the maxim itself lacked realism, at least for a human.

    Hi CK and other,
    I appreciate your posts and knowledge in this thread. I'm happy for them. The aim of this thread is to gather Kano texts and examples of his ideas and search / result in a discussion to determine how it specifically meant and what was reality.

    I will try to continue to look for other examples in the literature and references, and if that happens, it is placed here.

    I believe though that, although imperfect, utopian ideas and his ideas can bring benefits to life. One can at least several times a day to think about their particular behavior in different situations, whether something was done more efficiently, for good and for the wider benefit - whether as a teacher or uke to practice judo, father of the children, the marriage partner, employee, neighbor, a citizen in the society.

    Cichorei Kano

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 8:52 am


    Thanks.


    Last edited by Cichorei Kano on Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:51 pm; edited 2 times in total


    _________________


    "The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
    "Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
    "Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
    "I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."

    Anatol

    Posts : 181
    Join date : 2014-01-20

    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Mon Sep 15, 2014 9:14 am

    Hi NBK

    egarding the origin of the term 'softness overcomes hardness' Jū yoku go wo seisuru (which I hold is incorrect, as it should translated more complexly, such as flexibility/softness overcomes stiffness/hardness),

    Thats correct because "softness overcomes hardness" is to short and incomplete as a translation

    Laozi 36

    rou2 ruo4 sheng4 gang1 qiang2

    rou2 = soft, flexible, gentle, mild, supple,
    ruo4 = weak, inferior, flexible, (young)
    sheng4 = succeed, defeat, conquer, surpass, overcome
    gang1 = rigid, hard
    qiang2 = powerful, strong, violent, vigorous,

    So there are some possibilities for translation but its not as hard as other lines from the Laozi

    "The flexible and weak overcomes the hard and strong"


    If only "softness overcomes hardness" it would be: rou2 sheng4 gang1



    in jujutsu lore the source is usually cited as one of the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, 黄石公三略(Huáng Shígōng Sānlüè) 黄石公三略 'also known as 太公兵法 Tàigōng Bīngfǎ', one of the Seven Military Classics, which dates from around 200BC to 0 CE. (It also happens to be the subject of the avatar I use on this forum.) The point is that the best strategy to win employs multiple forms, not single strategies. And the book is primarily seen as influenced by Confucian and Daoist philosophies.
    Thats wrong.

    The Huang Shigong San Lue is an ecclective work and binds Confucian, Legalist and Daoist thoughts together. Most probably it was written at the end of the Western Han Dynasty around 0. Dominant Thougts in the Western Han were Confucianism (since emperor Han Wudi 135 B.) and also Daoism in a form of HuangLao Daoism - a blend of Laozi Daoism and TCM and Yi Jing and YinYang/Wuxing Correspondence System and Waidan (outer alchemy) to get a very long life or even immortality (xian).

    The Laozi (Dao De Jing) itself was written and compiled around 320 B - 250 B. and was widespread in the early Western Han Dynastie (see Mawangdui 1973). The first commentaries to the Laozi are written from Hanfeizi (a legalist) around 240 B.

    It is very clear that the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong (written 0 BC)  influenced by Confucianism, Legalism, Sunzi and HuangLaoDaoism and also the "Huainanzi" (a daoist work around 140 B) give a quote from Laozi 36: "The flexible and weak overcomes the hard and strong" (written 320 B - 250 B). The Laozi is the older one, a widespread original daoist classic with deep influence to chinese culture and not only a short paper with some blended ecclectic thoughts ...


    .

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Mon Sep 15, 2014 11:08 am

    .......

    in jujutsu lore the source is usually cited as one of the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, 黄石公三略(Huáng Shígōng Sānlüè) 黄石公三略 'also known as 太公兵法 Tàigōng Bīngfǎ', one of the Seven Military Classics, which dates from around 200BC to 0 CE. (It also happens to be the subject of the avatar I use on this forum.) The point is that the best strategy to win employs multiple forms, not single strategies. And the book is primarily seen as influenced by Confucian and Daoist philosophies.
    Anatol wrote:
    Thats wrong.

    The Huang Shigong San Lue is an ecclective work and binds Confucian, Legalist and Daoist thoughts together. Most probably it was written at the end of the Western Han Dynasty around 0. Dominant Thougts in the Western Han were Confucianism (since emperor Han Wudi 135 B.) and also Daoism in a form of HuangLao Daoism - a blend of Laozi Daoism and TCM and Yi Jing and YinYang/Wuxing Correspondence System and Waidan (outer alchemy) to get a very long life or even immortality (xian).

    The Laozi (Dao De Jing) itself was written and compiled around 320 B - 250 B. and was widespread in the early Western Han Dynastie (see Mawangdui 1973). The first commentaries to the Laozi are written from Hanfeizi (a legalist) around 240 B.

    It is very clear that the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong (written 0 BC)  influenced by Confucianism, Legalism, Sunzi and HuangLaoDaoism and also the "Huainanzi" (a daoist work around 140 B) give a quote from Laozi 36: "The flexible and weak overcomes the hard and strong" (written 320 B - 250 B). The Laozi is the older one, a widespread original daoist classic with deep influence to chinese culture and not only a short paper with some blended ecclectic thoughts ...
    Hi, Anatol.

    Thanks for the expansion of the discussion of the SanLue. I figured that casual observers were confused enough without the introduction of Legalism etc. etc.

    I'm not sure exactly what is 'wrong'.

    From what I read the Laozi does _predate_ the SanLue, but nevertheless in old jujutsu texts their source for 柔 yawara, or , if even cited, is the Sānlüè, not the Laozi. I don't know how the SanLue strategy of flexibility 「柔能制剛、弱能制強」 entered Japanese lore while the same, or similar term in the more widely studied Laozi was overlooked, but that seems to be the case.

    Perhaps the Sānlüè is a metaphor for Kano shihan's writings - has identifiable elements from many different sources but clearly reflects certain fundamental schools of thought.

    Anyhow, thanks again.

    Lance Gatling
    Tokyo

    NBK

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Mon Sep 15, 2014 4:26 pm

    noboru wrote:Thank you for your nice discussion. I found next text to this theme. I get only czech translation to this time.

    The Contribution of Judo to Education by Jigoro Kano
    This speech by Jigoro Kano was given at the University of Southern California (USC) in Loc Angeles on the occasion of 11th Olympiad, 1932.
    http://www.msisshinryu.com/articles/kano/judo-contrib.shtml

    The Contribution of Judo to Education by Jigoro Kano

    The object of this lecture is to explain to you in a general way what Judo is. In our feudal times, there were many military exercises such as fencing, archery, the use of spears, etc. Among them there was one called Jujutsu which was a composite exercise, consisting principally of the ways of fighting without weapons; using, however, occasionally daggers, swords and other weapons.

    The kinds of attack were chiefly throwing, hitting, choking, holding the opponent down and bending or twisting the opponent's arms or legs in such a way as to cause pain or fracture. The use of swords and daggers was also taught. We had also multitudinous ways of defending ourselves against such attacks. Such exercise, in its primitive form, existed even in our mythological age. But systematic instruction, as an art, dates only from about three hundred fifty years ago.

    In my younger days I studied this art with three eminent masters of the time. The great benefit I derived from the study of it led me to make up my mind to go on with the subject more seriously, and in 1882 I started a school of my own and called it Kodokan. Kodokan literally means a school for studying the way, the meaning of the way being the concept of life itself. I named the subject I teach Judo instead of Jujutsu. In the first place I will explain to you the meaning of these words. Ju means gentle or to give way, Jutsu, an art or practice, and Do, way or principle, so that Jujutsu means an art or practice of gentleness or of giving way in order to ultimately gain the victory; while Judo means the way or principle of the same.

    Besides the acquisition of useful knowledge, we must endeavor to improve our intellectual powers, such as memory, attention, observation, judgment, reasoning, imagination, etc. But this we should not do in a haphazard manner, but in accordance with psychological laws, so that the relation of those powers one with the other shall be well harmonized. It is only by faithfully following the principle of maximum efficiency - that is Judo - that we can achieve the object of rationally increasing our knowledge and intellectual power.

    Can this principle be applied to other fields of human activity? Yes, the same principle can be applied to the improvement of the human body, making it strong, healthy and useful, and so constitutes physical education. It can also be applied to the improvement of intellectual and moral power, and in this way constitutes mental and moral education. It can at the same time be applied to the improvement of diet, clothing, housing, social intercourse, and methods of business, thus constituting the study and training in living. I gave this all-pervading principle the name of "Judo". So Judo, in its fuller sense, is a study and method in training of mind and body as in the regulation of life and affairs.

    Judo, therefore, in one of its phases, can be studied and practiced with attack and defense for its main object. Before I started Kodokan, this attack and defense phase of Judo only was studied and practiced in Japan under the name of Jiu-jitsu, sometimes called "Tai-Jitsu", meaning the art of managing the body or "Yawara", the "gentle management." But I came to think that the study of this all-pervading principle is more important that the mere practice of Jiu-jitsu, because the real understanding of the principle not only enables one to apply it to all phases of life, but is also of great service in the study of the art of Jiu-jitsu itself.

    It is not only through the process I took that one can come to grasp this principle. One can arrive at the same conclusion by philosophical interpretation of the daily transaction of business, or through abstract philosophical reasoning. But when I started to teach Judo I thought it advisable to follow the same course as I took in the study of the subject, because by so doing I could make the body of my pupil healthy, strong and useful. At the same time, I could assist him gradually to grasp this all-important principle. For this reason I began the instruction of Judo with training in randori and kata.

    Randori, meaning "free exercise", is practiced under conditions of actual contest. It includes throwing, choking, holding the opponent down, and bending or twisting his arms or legs. The two combatants may use whatever methods they like provided they do not hurt each other and obey the rules of Judo concerning etiquette, which are essential to its proper working.

    Kata, which literally means "form", is a formal system of prearranged exercises, including hitting, cutting, kicking, thrusting, etc., according to rules under which each combatant knows beforehand exactly what his opponent is going to do. The remaining hitting, kicking, cutting and thrusting techniques are taught in Kata and not in Randori, because if they were used in Randori cases of injury might frequently occur, while when taught in Kata no such injury is likely to happen because all the attacks and defenses are prearranged. Randori may be practiced in various ways. If the object be simply training in the method of attack and defense, the attention should be especially directed to the training in the most efficient ways of throwing, bending or twisting, without special reference to developing the body or to mental and moral culture. Randori can also be studied with physical education as its main objective. From what I have already said, anything to be ideal must be performed on "the principle of maximum efficiency."

    We will see how the existing system of physical education can stand this test. Taking athletics as a whole, I cannot help thinking that they are not the ideal form of physical education, because every movement is not chosen for all around development of the body but for attaining some other definite object. And furthermore, as we generally require special equipment and sometimes quite a number of persons to participate in them, athletics are fitted as a training for select groups of persons and not as the means of improving the physical condition of a whole nation.

    This holds true with boxing, wrestling, and different kinds of military exercises practiced all over the world. Then people may ask, "Are not gymnastics [calisthenics] an ideal form of national physical training?" To this I answer that they are an ideal form of physical education from their being contrived for all-round development of the body, and not necessarily requiring special equipment and participants. But gymnastics are lacking in very important things essential to the physical education of a whole nation. The defects are:

    • Different gymnastics movements have no meaning and naturally are devoid of interest.
    • No secondary benefit is derived from their training.
    • Attainment of "skill" (using the word "skill" in a special sense) cannot be sought for or acquired in gymnastics as in some other exercises.
    • From this brief survey of the whole field of physical education, I can say that no ideal form has yet been invented to fill the necessary conditions for such physical education.

    This ideal form can only be devised from a study based on maximum efficiency. In order to fulfill all those conditions or requirements, a system of all-round development of the body, as a primary consideration must be devised as in the case of gymnastics. Next, the movements should have some meaning so that they may be engaged in with interest. Again, the activities should be such as require no large space, special dress or equipment. Furthermore, they must be such as could be done individually as well as in groups. Those are the conditions or requirements for a satisfactory system of physical education for a whole nation. Any system that can meet successfully those requirements may, for the first time, be regarded as a program of physical education based on the principle of maximum efficiency.

    I have been studying this subject for a long time and have succeeded in devising two forms, which may be said to fulfill all those requirements. One form is what I named "representative form". This is a way of representing ideas, emotions, and different motions of natural objects by the movements of limbs, body and neck. Dancing is one instance of such, but originally dancing was not devised with physical education for its object, and can therefore not be said to fulfill those requirements. But it is possible to devise special kinds of dancing made to suit persons of different sex and mental and physical conditions and made to express moral ideas and feelings, so that conjointly with the cultivation of the spiritual side of a nation it can also develop the body in a way suited to all.

    This "representative form" is, I believe, in one way or other practiced in America and Europe, and you can, I think, imagine what I mean, therefore I shall not deal with it any further here.

    There is one other form, which I named "attack and defense form." In this, I have combined different methods of attack and defense, in such a way that the result will conduce to the harmonious development of the whole body. Ordinary methods of attack and defense taught in Jiu-jitsu cannot be said to .be ideal for the development of the body, therefore, I have especially combined them so that they fulfill the conditions necessary for the harmonious development of the body. This can be said to meet two purposes: (1) bodily development, and (2) training in the art of contest. As every nation is required to provide for national defense, so every individual must know how to defend himself. In this age of enlightenment, nobody would care to prepare either for national aggressions or for doing individual violence to others. But defense in the cause of justice and humanity must never be neglected by a nation or by an individual.

    This method of physical education in attack and defense form, I shall show you by actual practice. This is divided into two kinds of exercises: one is individual exercise and the other is exercise with an opponent (as demonstrated).From what I have explained and shown by practice, you have no doubt understood what I mean by physical education based on the principle of maximum efficiency. Although I strongly advocate that the physical education of a whole nation should be conducted on that principle, at the same time I do not mean to lay little emphasis on athletics and various kinds of martial exercise. Although they cannot be deemed appropriate as a physical education of a whole nation, yet as a culture or a group or groups of persons, they have their special value and I by no means wish to discourage them, especially Randori in Judo.

    One great value of Randori lies in the abundance of movements it affords for physical development. Another value is that every movement has some purpose and is executed with spirit, while in ordinary gymnastics exercises movements lack interest. The object of a systematic physical training in Judo is not only to develop the body but to enable a man or a woman to have a perfect control over mind and body and make him or her ready to meet any emergency whether that be a pure accident or an attack by others.

    Although exercise in Judo is generally conducted between two persons, both in Kata and in Randori, and in a room specially prepared for the purpose, yet that is not always necessary. It can be practiced by a group or by a single person, on the playground, or in an ordinary room. People imagine that falling in Randori is attended with pain and sometimes with danger. But a brief explanation of the way one is taught to fall will enable them to understand that there is no such pain or danger.

    To take still another instance, in Randori, we teach the learner, when he faces an opponent who is madly excited, to score a victory over him, not by directly resisting him with might and main, but by playing him till the very fury and power of the latter expends itself.

    The usefulness of this attitude in everyday transactions with others is patent. As is well known, no amount of reasoning could avail us when a person who is so agitated as to seem to have lost his temper confronts us. All that we have to do in such a case is to wait until his passion wears itself out. All these teachings we learn from the practice of Randori. Their application to the conduct of daily affairs is a very interesting subject of study and is valuable as an intellectual training for young minds.

    I will finish my talk about the intellectual phase of Judo by referring shortly to the rational means of increasing knowledge and intellectual power. If we closely observe society, we notice everywhere the way in which we foolishly expend our energy in the acquisition of knowledge. All our surroundings are always giving us opportunities? Are we always making the best choice of books, magazines and newspapers we read? Do we not often find out that the energy which might have been spent for acquiring useful knowledge is often used for amassing knowledge which is prejudicial not only to self but also to society?

    I shall now proceed to speak of the intellectual phase of Judo. Mental training in Judo can be done by Kata as well as by competition between two persons, using all the resources at their command and obeying the prescribed rules of Judo, both parties must always be wide awake, and be endeavoring to find out weak points of the opponent, being ready to attack whenever opportunity allows. Such an attitude of mind in devising means of attack tends to make the pupil earnest, sincere, thoughtful, cautious and deliberate in all his dealings. At the same time one is trained for quick decision and prompt action, because in Randori unless one decides quickly and acts promptly he will always lose his opportunity either in attacking or in defending.

    Again, in Randori each contestant cannot tell what his opponent is going to do, so each must be prepared to meet any sudden attack by the other. Habituated to this kind of mental attitude, he develops a high degree of mental composure, or "poise." Exercise of the power of attention and observation in the gymnasium or place of training, naturally develops such power, which is so useful in daily life.

    For devising means of defeating an opponent, the exercise of the power of imagination, of reasoning and of judgment, is indispensable, and such power is naturally developed in Randori. Again as the study of Randori is the study of the relation, mental and physical, existing between two competing parties, hundreds of valuable lessons may be derived from this study, but I will content myself for the present by giving a few more examples. In Randori we teach the pupil always to act on the fundamental principle of Judo, no matter how physically inferior his opponent may seem to him and even if he can by sheer strength easily overcome the other. If he acts against this principle the opponent will never be convinced of his defeat, whatever brutal strength may have been used on him. It is hardly necessary to call your attention to the fact that the way to convince your opponent in an argument is not to push this or that advantage over him, be it from power, from knowledge or from wealth, but to persuade him in accordance with the inviolable rules of logic. This lesson that persuasion, not coercion, is efficacious, which is so valuable in actual life, we may learn from Randori.

    Again we teach the learner, when he has recourse to any trick in overcoming his opponent, to employ only as much of his force as is absolutely required for the purpose in question, cautioning him against either an over or under exertion of force. There are not a few cases in which people fail in what they undertake simply because they go too far, not knowing where to stop, and vice versa.

    To take still another instance, in Randori, we teach the learner, when he faces an opponent who is madly excited, to score a victory over him, not by directly resisting him with might and main, but by playing him till the very fury and power of the latter expends itself.

    The usefulness of this attitude in everyday transactions with others is patent. As is well known, no amount of reasoning could avail us when a person who is agitated as to seem to have lost his temper confronts us. All that we have to do in such a case is to wait until his passions wears itself out. All these teachings we learn from the practice of Randori. Their application to the conduct of daily affairs is a very interesting subject of study and is valuable as an intellectual training for young minds.

    Besides the acquisition of useful knowledge, we must endeavor to improve intellectual powers, such as memory, attention, observation, judgment, reasoning, imagination, etc. But this we should not do in a haphazard manner, but in accordance with psychological laws, so that the relation of those powers one with the other shall be well harmonized. It is only by faithfully following the principle of maximum efficiency, that is Judo, that we can achieve the object of rationally increasing our knowledge and intellectual power.

    I shall now speak about the moral phase of Judo. It is not my intention to speak of the moral discipline given to students in the exercise room, such as the observance of the regular rules of etiquette, courage, perseverance, kindness, respect for others, impartiality, and fair play so much emphasized in athletic sports throughout the world. The training in Judo has a special moral import in Japan because Judo, together with other martial exercises, was practiced by our Samurai, who had a high code of honor, the spirit of which has been bequeathed to us through the teaching of the art. In this connection I wish to explain to you how the principle of maximum efficiency helps us in promoting moral conduct. A man is sometimes very excitable and prone to anger for trivial reasons.

    But when one comes to consider that "to be excited" is an unnecessary expenditure of energy, giving benefit to nobody but often doing harm to himself and others, it will be seen that the student of Judo must refrain from such conduct.

    A man is sometimes despondent from disappointment, is gloomy, and has no courage to work. To such a man Judo comes with the advice to find out what is the best thing he can do under the existing circumstances. Paradoxical as it may seem, such a man is, to my mind, in the same position as one whom is at the zenith of success. In either case, there is only one course to follow, that is, what, after due consideration, he deems to be the best course of action at the time. Thus the teaching of Judo may be said to lean a man from the depths of disappointment and lethargy to a state of vigorous activity with a bright hope for the future.

    The same reasoning applies to those persons who are discontented. Discontented persons are often in a sulky state of mind and blame other people for what is their own fault and without attending to their own business. The teaching of Judo will make persons understand that such conduct is against the principle of maximum efficiency, and make them realize that by the faithful observance of that principle they will become more cheerful. Thus the teaching of Judo is, in a variety of ways, serviceable to the promotion of moral conduct.

    Finally, I wish to add a few words to the emotional phase of Judo. We are all aware of the pleasurable sensation given to the nerves and muscles through exercise, and we also feel pleasure at the attainment of skill, in the use of our muscles, and also through the sense of superiority over others in contest. But besides these pleasures there is that love of beauty and delight in it derivable from assuming graceful attitudes and performing graceful movements and also in seeing such in others. The training in these, together with the pleasure obtainable from watching movements symbolical of different ideas, constitutes what we call the emotional or the aesthetic phase of Judo. I believe you have already come to see what kind of thing Judo really is, in contra-distinction to the Jiu-jitsu of feudal times.

    If I now state in a concise form what I have said, it might be summed up as follows:

    Judo is a study and training in mind and body as well as in the regulation of one's life and affairs. From the thorough study of the different methods of attack and defense I became convinced that they all depend on the application of one all-pervading principle, namely: "Whatever be the object, it can best be attained by the highest or maximum efficient use of mind and body for that purpose". Just as this principle applied to the methods of attack and defense constitutes Jiu-jitsu, so does this same principle, applied to physical, mental and moral culture, as well as to ways of living and carrying on of business, constitute the study of, and the training in, those things.
    Once the real importance of this principle is understood, it may be applied to all phases of life and activity and enable one to lead the highest and the most rational life. The real understanding of this principle need not necessarily be arrived at through the training in the methods of attack and defense, but as I came to conceive of this idea through training in these methods, I made such training in contest and the training for the development of the body the regular means of arriving at the principle.

    This principle of maximum efficiency, when applied to the keying up or perfecting of social life, just as when applied to the coordination of mind and body, in the science of attack and defense, demands, first of all, order and harmony among its members, and this can only be attained through mutual aid and concessions, leading to mutual welfare and benefit.

    The final aim of Judo, therefore, is to inculcate in the mind of man a spirit of respect for the principle of maximum efficiency and of mutual welfare and benefit, leading him so to practice them that man individually and collectively can attain to the highest state, and, at the same time, develop the body and learn the art of attack and defense.

    If we closely observe the actual state of society all over the world, notwithstanding the fact that morality in all its forms (religious, philosophical and traditional) is meant to improve man's conduct in society and make the world ideal, the fact seems quite the contrary. We notice vices, quarrels, and discontent in every level of society, from the highest to the lowest. While we are taught hygiene and correct ways of living in school from childhood up to mature age, we still are prone to neglect the rules of good clean living and of hygienic and orderly lives.

    The actual facts prove that our society is lacking in something which, if brought to light and universally acknowledged, can remodel the society and bring greater happiness and satisfaction to this world. This is the teaching of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit.

    I do not mean to say that our time honored moral precepts and hygienics should be shelved. On the contrary, let those precepts and advice be respected ever as they used to be, but in addition to these; our principle of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit should ever be paramount. This I emphatically say, because in this age of criticism and new ideas, for any teaching to have effect, it must have behind it, some indubitable reason of fact. We do not hear the thinking man today say, "Because I believe in such and such a thing, therefore you must believe in it, or, I came to such and such a conclusion through my own reasoning; therefore you also must come to the same conclusion." Whatever one affirms must be based on facts or reasoning which no sane person can deny or doubt. Certainly none can deny the value of the principle "Whatever be the objective, it can best be attain by the highest or maximum effective use of mind and body for that purpose." Again, none can deny that it is only by aiming at mutual welfare and benefit that every member of society can keep from discord and quarreling, and live in peace and prosperity. Is it not because of the universal recognition of these facts that people have come to talk so much about efficiency and scientific management and that everywhere these are being advocated? In addition to this, the principle of give-and-take is more and more coming to be the determining factor in the lives of all human beings. Is it not because this principle of mutual welfare and benefit has been recognized that from the League of Nations and the Great Powers of the World we came to meet for the decrease of naval and military armaments? These movements are also automatic acknowledgment of the crying need of efficient and mutual welfare and benefit. The educational forces of every country in which Judo should have a prominent part must further them.


    *****
    The citation should read
    Kano, J. (1932) 'The contribution of Judo to education', The Journal of Health on Education, 1932.

    NBK

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    Join date : 2013-01-10
    Location : Tokyo, Japan

    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Mon Sep 15, 2014 4:30 pm

    Here is the take of a couple of gents on a somewhat related topic:

    Why Prof. Jigoro Kano did not recieved the Nobel Prize?
    Roman Macief Kalina, Bartlomieh Jan Barczynski, 2008
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=14&ved=0CCwQFjADOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archbudo.com%2Ffulltxt.php%3FICID%3D873290&ei=n3cWVLqSM5Xt8AWjhICQCg&usg=AFQjCNExVTcOgck5Q25QOutsDicXIs2UjA&bvm=bv.75097201,d.dGc&cad=rja
    I think this link will work.

    Anatol

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    Join date : 2014-01-20

    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Mon Sep 15, 2014 8:49 pm

    Hi NBK

    I'm not sure exactly what is 'wrong'.

    From what I read the Laozi does _predate_ the SanLue, but nevertheless in old jujutsu texts their source for 柔 yawara, or jū, if even cited, is the Sānlüè, not the Laozi.
    Thats possible because the "San Lue" is one of the Seven Military Classics (wujingqishu) which were canonized 11th century A.C. in the Song Dynasty. Japan was (is) heavily influenced by chinese culture especially Confucianism. Confucianism spread to Japan and in Confucianism you had to study the Confucian Classics - and not the Daoist like Laozi and Zhuangzi. Both the "Wen" (bureaucrats) and the "Wu" (warriors) had to study all confucian books, the "Wu" especially the Seven Miltary Classics. But they were concentrated on Confucianism or Neoconfucianism, which tries to blend Daoism and Buddhism with  Confucianism (the three teachings are one - san jiao yi) - others say Neoconfucianism tried to occupy or absorb D and B. From there comes the confusion, because people, who didnt read the daoist classics thought, that "the flexible und weak overcomes the hard and strong" is part of confucian texts and the Ju Jutsu text refered the principle of "ju" = rou to a military treatise in confucian context. But it's very clear that the "San Lue" quotes from Laozi and is a text which is influenced by HuangLao Daoism.


    I don't know how the SanLue strategy of flexibility 「柔能制剛、弱能制強」 entered Japanese lore while the same, or similar term in the more widely studied Laozi was overlooked, but that seems to be the case.
    There are even more quotes from the Laozi to explain the idea of "ju" and "wu you" (without substance/form) and also in a broader context and explanation.

    Laozi 43

    What is of all things most yielding
    Can overwhelm that which is of all things most hard.
    Being substanceless it can enter even where is no space;
    That is how I know the value of action that is actionless.


    Laozi 76

    When he is born, man is soft and weak;
    In death he becomes stiff and hard.
    The ten thousand creatures and all plants
    And trees while they are alive are supple and soft,
    But when and dead they become brittle and dry.
    Truly, what is stiff and hard is a “companion of death”;
    What is soft and weak is a “companion of life”.
    Therefore “the weapon that is too hard will be broken,
    The tree that has the hardest wood will be cut down”.
    Truly, the hard and mighty are cast down;
    The soft and weak set on high.


    Laozi 78

    Nothing under heaven is softer or more yielding than water;
    But when it attacks things hard and resistant there is not one of them that can prevail.
    For they can find no way of altering it.

    That the yielding conquers the resistant
    And the soft conquers the hard is a fact known by all men,
    Yet utilized by none



    There is really nothing special or original in the San Lue, it blends Daoist Thought with Confucian, some part are Legalist and some Sunzi.

    http://ctext.org/three-strategies

    Isn't it better to learn from the masters (original) then from the pupils IF the masters are also available? The over way around would be like you learn about confucianism from the Three Character Classic (San Zi Jing) - which is for children - not from the Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu).  


    P.S.: Even if they knew the original lines are from the Laozi - which I doubt - there is a further reason not to quote the Laozi. The Laozi is full of criticism of confucianism and this to its core. Daoist thinkers like Laozi discard (and sometimes ridicule - like Zhuangzi) the central ideas of confucianism like benevolence (ren), righteousness (yi), proper rite (li), knowledge (zhi) and learning (xue) and filial piety (xiao).
    .

    Reinberger

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    Join date : 2013-12-02

    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Reinberger on Tue Sep 16, 2014 10:31 pm

    My take on some things, that were mentioned here:

    Ideal (noun): A person or thing regarded as perfect. A standard or principle to be aimed at. An idea or standard of perfection or excellence. Someone or something that is believed to be perfect. Someone or something that you admire and want to imitate. A standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence. An ultimate object or aim of endeavour. A perfect thing or situation.

    If we look for definitions of the noun "ideal", we quickly arrive at expressions like "perfect", "perfection", and "something to be aimed for". There are a lot of ideals in existence, of the type we are discussing here. Usually, they rise from a religious, political, philosophical or a similar context. While some of them may have a great  bunch of followers, the world is still the imperfect place it is. Obviously, while the ideals they admire and, perhaps, even strive for, may be called "perfect", they, as humans, are not. Therefore, regarding the possibility of it's realization, couldn't every ideal of that, more comprehensive type be called utopian or naive (in the sense of ignoring the human nature)?

    I think, ideals are just that: ideals. To me, it would be fanaticism, or extremism, to expect or to demand complete fulfilment of such ideals from others, as well as from oneself. We all know the type of people, that do not realize that, and we already know, to which (sometimes exactly contrary, even gruesome) results that may lead. But if one considers such ideals from a realistic point of view, it rather becomes a matter of the level of possible approximation one tries to improve, even if one fully acknowledges the impossibility of reaching perfection for one self, as well as for other human beings. I look at Kanō's maxims of Sei-ryoku Zen’yō and Jita kyō-ei in exactly that way. Concepts like that, for me, distinguish budō, in a positive way, from many seemingly similar, physical activities. I regard them as being positive and important, and I don't think, that the constant striving for perfection, technically and physically as well as regarding those "higher" goals, by a budōka (or a jūdōka, for that matter) is wasted energy, as long as it is done with a healthy attitude and realism. Regarding me, personally, I would have long ceased my relevant activeness, had I considered them as mere physical activities, be it sport, art, preparation for self defence, or what else.

    With that I think I should end my expressions of personal view here, in order to make way for possible further original texts and comments regarding the matter at hand.


    _________________
    Kind regards, Robert

    noboru

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    extract from wikipedia article about Kano Jigoro

    Post by noboru on Wed Sep 17, 2014 12:28 am

    Below is extract with some quotes from wikipedia article about Kano Jigoro: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kan%C5%8D_Jigor%C5%8D

    From part Ideals

    Being an idealist, Kanō had broad aims for judo, which he saw as something that simultaneously encompassed self-defense, physical culture, and moral behavior.[28]
    “ Since the very beginning, I had been categorizing Judo into three parts, rentai-ho, shobu-ho, and shushin-ho. Rentai-ho refers to Judo as a physical exercise, while shobu-ho is Judo as a martial art. Shushin-ho is the cultivation of wisdom and virtue as well as the study and application of the principles of Judo in our daily lives. I therefore anticipated that practitioners would develop their bodies in an ideal manner, to be outstanding in matches, and also to improve their wisdom and virtue and make the spirit of Judo live in their daily lives. If we consider Judo first as a physical exercise, we should remember that our bodies should not be stiff, but free, quick and strong. We should be able to move properly in response to our opponent's unexpected attacks. We should also not forget to make full use of every opportunity during our practice to improve our wisdom and virtue. These are the ideal principles of my Judo. ”

    In 1915, Kanō gave this definition to judo:[29]
    “ Judo is the way of the highest or most efficient use of both physical and mental energy. Through training in the attack and defence techniques of judo, the practitioner nurtures their physical and mental strength, and gradually embodies the essence of the Way of Judo. Thus, the ultimate objective of Judo discipline is to be utilized as a means to self-perfection, and thenceforth to make a positive contribution to society. ”

    In 1918, Kanō added:[30]
    “ Don't think about what to do after you become strong – I have repeatedly stressed that the ultimate goal of Judo is to perfect the self, and to make a contribution to society. In the old days, Jūjutsu practitioners focused their efforts on becoming strong, and did not give too much consideration to how they could put that strength to use. Similarly, Judo practitioners of today do not make sufficient efforts to understand the ultimate objective of Judo. Too much emphasis is placed on the process rather than the objective, and many only desire to become strong and be able to defeat their opponents. Of course, I am not negating the importance of wanting to become strong or skilled. However, it must be remembered that this is just part of the process for a greater objective... The worth of all people is dependent on how they spend their life making contributions. ”

    The Kodokan dojo main entrance, Tokyo, Japan.
    During March 1922, Kanō brought all this to fruition through the introduction of the Kodokan Bunkakai, or Kodokan Cultural Association. This organization held its first meeting at Tokyo's Seiyoken Hotel on 5 April 1922, and held its first public lecture three days later at the YMCA hall in Kanda. The mottoes of the Kodokan Cultural Association were "Good Use of Spiritual and Physical Strength" and "Prospering in Common for Oneself and Others." Although those are literal translations, the phrases were usually translated into English as "Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort" and "Mutual Welfare and Benefit." The theories of this organization were described in some detail in an article published in Living Age in September 1922.[31]
    “ The purpose of my talk is to treat of judo as a culture: physical, mental, and moral, – but as it is based on the art of attack and defense, I shall first explain what this judo of the contest is…
    A main feature of the art is the application of the principles of non-resistance and taking advantage of the opponent's loss of equilibrium; hence the name jūjutsu (literally soft or gentle art), or judo (doctrine of softness or gentleness)...

    ...of the principle of the Maximum Efficiency in Use of Mind and Body. On this principle the whole fabric of the art and science of judo is constructed.

    Judo is taught under two methods, one called randori, and the other kata. Randori, or Free Exercise, is practised under conditions of actual contest. It includes throwing, choking, holding down, and bending or twisting the opponent's arms or legs. The combatants may use whatever tricks they like, provided they do not hurt each other, and obey the general rules of judo etiquette. Kata, which literally means Form, is a formal system of prearranged exercises, including, besides the aforementioned actions, hitting and kicking and the use of weapons, according to rules under which each combatant knows beforehand exactly what his opponent is going to do.

    The use of weapons and hitting and kicking is taught in kata and not in randori, because if these practices were resorted to in randori injury might well arise...

    As to the moral phase of judo, – not to speak of the discipline of the exercise room involving the observance of the regular rules of etiquette, courage, and perseverance, kindness to and respect for others, impartiality and fair play so much emphasized in Western athletic training, – judo has special importance in Japan...


    Links to original sources:
    [28] ^ Kano, Jigoro. "The Life of Jigoro Kano". Reprinted in AikiNews, 85, 1990.[3]
    [29] ^ Murata, Naoki. "From 'Jutsu to Dō: The Birth of Kōdōkan Judo." In Alexander Bennett, ed., Budo Perspectives. Auckland: Kendo World, 2005, pp. 147–148.
    [30] ^ Murata, Naoki. "From 'Jutsu to Dō: The Birth of Kōdōkan Judo." In Alexander Bennett, ed., Budo Perspectives. Auckland: Kendo World, 2005, p. 150.
    [31] ^ Kano, Jigoro. "The Contribution of Jiudo [sic] to Education", Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3, 1932, pp. 37–40, 58.[4]

    From next parts:
    " When yielding is the highest efficient use of energy, then yielding is judo."[41]

    Kanō's chief goal in all this was, in his words, to gather people together for a common cause, with friendly feeling.[45] His goals did not, however, particularly involve getting judo into the Olympics. As he put it in a letter to Britain's Gunji Koizumi in 1936:[46]
    “ I have been asked by people of various sections as to the wisdom and the possibility of Judo being introduced at the Olympic Games. My view on the matter, at present, is rather passive. If it be the desire of other member countries, I have no objection. But I do not feel inclined to take any initiative. For one thing, Judo in reality is not a mere sport or game. I regard it as a principle of life, art and science. In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment. Only one of the forms of Judo training, the so-called randori can be classed as a form of sport... [In addition, the] Olympic Games are so strongly flavoured with nationalism that it is possible to be influenced by it and to develop Contest Judo as a retrograde form as Jujitsu was before the Kodokan was founded. Judo should be as free as art and science from external influences – political, national, racial, financial or any other organised interest. And all things connected with it should be directed to its ultimate object, the benefit of humanity. ”


    Links to original sources:
    [41] ^ Japan Times, 17 May 1938, p. 5.
    [45] ^ Kano, Jigoro. "Olympic Games and Japan," Dai Nippon, 1936, p. 199.
    [46] ^ Brousse, Michel and Matsumoto, David. Judo in the U.S.: A Century of Dedication. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 2005, p. 110.

    noboru

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    Kano's speech 'The contribution of Judo to education' changing in the years 1932 -1936

    Post by noboru on Wed Sep 17, 2014 1:58 am

    NBK wrote:
    The citation should read
    Kano, J. (1932) 'The contribution of Judo to education', The Journal of Health on Education, 1932.  

    Thank you.

    I have one note about this text/speech.

    I compared this text with Kano's speech from 1.September 1936 in Prague (Kano stayed in Prague (Czechoslowakia) during his trip to Olympic Games in Berlin 1936). Both speeches are very similar. I found one difference. It looks like that the Jigoro Kano added/inserted more explanation of Seiryoku Zen'yo / Ju no ri  in the next years.

    The 4. and 5. paragraphs from english original speech from 1932 are:
    ---
    "Besides the acquisition of useful knowledge, we must endeavor to improve our intellectual powers, such as memory, attention, observation, judgment, reasoning, imagination, etc. But this we should not do in a haphazard manner, but in accordance with psychological laws, so that the relation of those powers one with the other shall be well harmonized. It is only by faithfully following the principle of maximum efficiency - that is Judo - that we can achieve the object of rationally increasing our knowledge and intellectual power.

    Can this principle be applied to other fields of human activity? Yes, the same principle can be applied to the improvement of the human body, making it strong, healthy and useful, and so constitutes physical education. It can also be applied to the improvement of intellectual and moral power, and in this way constitutes mental and moral education. It can at the same time be applied to the improvement of diet, clothing, housing, social intercourse, and methods of business, thus constituting the study and training in living. I gave this all-pervading principle the name of "Judo". So Judo, in its fuller sense, is a study and method in training of mind and body as in the regulation of life and affairs."

    ---
    Jigoro Kano replaced these paragraphs in german speech from 1936 for czech people with other paragraphs(my quick attempt of translation from czech to english - it would be better translation from better english speaker - I will try to give my friends to translate):
    ---
    "Let me explain how it is meant with the gentleness and yielding. Suppose that we measure the strength of man units from one to ten. For example, the strength of a man standing in front of me is ten units, whereas my strength is only seven units. When pushing me your strength, I naturally extruded and thrown, if I use all my strenght against him. It happens when I turn him against all his strength, strength against strength. However, if instead defied give it up and give in just about as much as I want to push him back, and when it can keep the balance, leaning forward and lost his balance. In this new position is so weak (not true to what the physical forces, but due to its improper position), that his strength at this time involves only 3 units, instead of the normal 10 units. I do, because I stayed in balance, maintaining its entire force, amounting to 7 units. By this time I was in the advantageous position so that the rival to beat me just half the power, that is half of 7 is 3 1/2 to 3 units opponent. This leaves half of my strength applicable for any other purpose. If I had more power than my opponent, I could naturally resist, but even in this case its energy efficient economy better when you give in first. This is a simple example of how you can yield to beat the opponent. The following is another example: assume that the opponents are trying to turn my body intend to topple me to the ground. If he disagreed, I was thrown to the ground, because he has enough strength to resist. When he but rather a place I do not pull on it, I can easily intentionally permit, especially if I go at it alone on the ground.

    I could cite any number of examples yet, but I think that these two will suffice to understand how it is possible to overwhelm the enemy with yielding. In the fight jujutsu is a great number of examples in which this principle is applied and hence arose the name of jujutsu (it is gently or pliable) for the whole of this art.

    But strictly speaking, the real jujutsu is something more. The path to victory using jujutsu is not bounded only to yielding. Often, knock, and pull down the strangling contrary to the yielding, they are different forms of the actual attack. Often we firmly grasps the opponent's wrist. How to relax without use of force against the opposition's possession? Or how to relax when your opponent grabs us from behind? So when the principle of submission to explain all the tricks of the fight jujutsu is not a principle, for jujutsu universally valid? Yes, it's the principle of effective use of body and soul and jujutsu is nothing more than the application of this general principle in attack and defense. It is possible to use this principle also in other human activity? Yes, this principle can be used for improvement of the human body to become strong, healthy and helpful. Maintain it means raising the body. It can be used to improve the intellectual and moral strength and moral education. Can it be used to improve the art, dress, housing, social etiquette, business and means the study and practice on the path of life. This pervasive principle, I gave the name judo. Judo in the broad sense is the study and methods trained for spirit and body, as well as the principles applicable to all actions."

    ---
    You can see, that last sentences from question "Can this principle be applied to other fields of human activity?" / "It is possible to use this principle also in other human activity?" are same - differencies are caused re-translation (german -> czech -> (my) english), but the meaning of sentences is the same...

    Next parts of speeches looks same...


    Last edited by noboru on Thu Sep 18, 2014 12:21 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : changes jiu jitsu -> jujutsu)

    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Wed Sep 17, 2014 8:56 pm

    Hi Mr. Reinberger



    A)

    "Seiryoku zenyo" (Best use of energy) is a foundamental principle, which comes from nature.

    The Method/Way (do) within is "Ju (yielding, flexible, soft).

    This principle can be adopted in all parts of life, because its the most natural and efficient.



    B)

    "Jita Kyoei" (Mutual benefit and welfare, selfperfection and contributing to an ideal society) is a moral and pedagogical Judo Ideal,

    which ideas comes from Confucianism, Utilitarism (Bentham, Mill), social evolution (Spencer)
    and the pedagogy of Pestalozzi (Kopf, Herz, Hand).

    Even these ideals have some merits like respect, helping each other, discipline, selfdevelopment of body, character and mind, less egoism, courtesy, harmony and peace and so on, "jita kyoei" is not a foundamental moral and social principle like the Foundamental Human Rights, which are based on individual freedom and to respect the freedom of the others. At a big frame Kanos vision of an "ideal society in harmony and peace" lacks the foundation in individual rights and that es not a coincidence, because its the same in confucianism and utilitarism. This must not but can be dangerous and lead to a society with strict rules, strong hierarchy, seniority and superiority. On the individual side the aim of steady learning, devoloping, progressing, perfection of Mind an Body, Character and social skills can lead to a very unhappy life and nether be in presence. There is always something to do, learn, develop, refine, polish, achieve - but life is no race. If you do it for your self, its your own failure but if you demand it from others you are the problem.

    Shortcut:

    "Jita Kyoei" is a good reminder to help each other, not being rude or selfish and develop not only the body but also heart and mind.


    "Seiryoku zenyo" (Best use of energy) is a foundamental principle, which comes from nature.

    The Method/Way (do) within is "Ju (yielding, flexible, soft).

    This principle can be adopted in all parts of life, because its the most efficient and natural.


    Said this, "seiryoku zenyo" is not an universal principle, because its only the best use of energy.

    You can do the bad and the evil "with maximum efficiency " (but question, if it is the best use of "sei" )


    .

    wdax

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by wdax on Wed Sep 17, 2014 11:24 pm

    Anatol wrote:Said this, "seiryoku zenyo" is not an universal principle, because its only the best use of energy.

    You can do the bad and the evil "with maximum efficiency " (but question, if it is the best use of "sei" )

    This needs a little correction, but you already are on the way.

    "Zen" 善 means "good" or "for good purpose". Seiryoku-zenyo clearly is a moral principle: To use one´s physical and mental power with maximum efficiency to do good things". Please remember that it is shortened form seiryoku-kaizen-katsuyo. But there is no definition of what is good or not, so jita-kyo´ei was added. "Good is, what leads to mutual welfare - physical, moral and mental".

    Jihef

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Jihef on Thu Sep 18, 2014 12:48 am

    wdax wrote:This needs a little correction, but you already are on the way.

    "Zen" 善  means "good" or "for good purpose". Seiryoku-zenyo clearly is a moral principle: To use one´s physical and mental power with maximum efficiency to do good things". Please remember that it is shortened form seiryoku-kaizen-katsuyo. But there is no definition of what is good or not, so jita-kyo´ei was added. "Good is, what leads to mutual welfare - physical, moral and mental".
    Where is the "LIKE" button in this forum, again ?


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    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Thu Sep 18, 2014 1:18 am

    Hi wdax


    A)

    I do not read japanese but in chinese the hanzi "shan4" (zen) means both: "good" and also "virtuous".

    If this is the same in japanese, "Seiryoku zenyo" has clearly a moral component too. Thx for pointing that out!


    B)

    "Good is, what leads to mutual welfare - physical, moral and mental".
    And what are the components of "welfare" in a physical, moral and mental way?

    We expect the judoka to make his body healthy and strong, be
    morally upright and to play an influential role in society. We expect individuals and
    groups to help and compromise with each other thereby creating a pervasive harmony.
    In the world at large we expect all to strive for mutual prosperity (Jita Kyoei), to
    abandon racial discrimination and to share equally in the fruits of cultural
    improvements.

    The essential points of these are: (1) Highest practical application of
    mind and body is the secret of self-perfection. (2) Self-perfection is completed by
    aiding other perfections. (3) Self-perfection is the basis of mankind’s mutual
    prosperity.
    Sure that are mostly confucian thoughts (exception is the part of physical education)
    moral upright (yi)
    harmony (he)
    cultural development and improvements (dao)
    self perfection through learning (da xue)
    mutuality, welfare, benevolence and humanity (ren)

    In a more modern view it would be communitarianism.

    For myself I prefer a society which is build on Individuality, Freedom, Human Rights, principle of legal certainty, democracy and no obligation of perfection in any sense. Kanos view lacks individual rights and freedom and has a strong affinity to see the individual as a part of society with lots of duties.  Peace and harmony and mutual prosperity are also possible in a dictatorship whereas freedom and human rights and tolerance never can lead to repression and most times they lead to a human society and to welfare.

    By the way: I do very appreciate your paper "Grundwissen der Geschichte des Kōdōkan-Jūdō in Japan"!

    .


    Last edited by Anatol on Thu Sep 18, 2014 1:41 am; edited 1 time in total

    wdax

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by wdax on Thu Sep 18, 2014 1:29 am

    Anatol wrote:I do not read japanese but in chinese the hanzi "shan4" (zen) means both: "good" and also "virtuous".
    If this is the same in japanese, "Seiryoku zenyo" has clearly a moral component too. Thx for pointing that out!
    Yes ist does... ;-)


    Anatol wrote:By the way: I do very appreciate your paper "Grundwissen der Geschichte des Kōdōkan-Jūdō in Japan"!
    Thanks - I don´t know, if you have the complete collection, but here it is:
    http://www.nwjv.de/fileadmin/qualifizierung/dokumente/kodokan_judo.pdf

    Sorry, no index..... I always wanted to make a book out of it, but because of the passing of Dieter Born, I not only lost a friend, but a publisher.

    Reinberger

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Reinberger on Thu Sep 18, 2014 2:42 am

    Anatol,

    thank you very much for your remarks.

    In my earlier posting, I didn't use the expressions "fundamental principle", "universal principle", or "fundamental moral and social principle", but of course, what you say about the general applicability of "Sei-ryoku Zen’yō" is correct. What only I, admittedly, don't seem to get, is your distinction between "fundamental" and "universal" in that context, as, in your posting, one time you write Sei-ryoku Zen’yō "IS a fundamental principle which comes from nature", but another time you note "it is NOT an universal principle, because its only the best use of energy which comes from nature".

    However, if I still included it within the expression of "ideal(s)" earlier, I did it because I doubt that anybody is able to apply it really everywhere and every time. In that sense, I regard Sei-ryoku Zen’yō as an ideal too.

    When I also wrote about "Jita kyō-ei" as an ideal, I didn't want to imply an exclusivity of that maxim. While Jita kyō-ei may not be "a fundamental moral and social principle", as it isn't "based on individual freedom and to respect the freedom of the others", because of its pedigree (maybe the time, when it was formulated, may also play a role here), I don't see how it should rule out the application of "Fundamental Human Rights". Maybe, that you could make that clearer for me?

    As of yet, I regard "Jita kyō-ei" as an ideal that is pretty good combinable with "fundamental moral and social principles" accepted within a modern, human society, principles like the "Fundamental Human Rights", or values like, for example, democracy.

    Anatol, you also wrote: "On the individual side the aim of steady learning, devoloping, progressing, perfection of Mind an Body, Character and social skills can lead to a very unhappy life and nether be in presence. There is always something to do, learn, develop, refine, polish, achieve - but life is no race. If you do it for your self, its your own failure but if you demand it from others you are the problem."

    I thought, I'd made it clear, how I think that can and has to be avoided. Haven't I even explicit warned against what I termed "fanaticism or extremism" in that regard?

    Apart from that, I regard this "steady learning, developing, etc." you talk about, as an attribute downright typical and even assumed for a budōka, while it seems to be requested nowhere, that "perfection" actually has to be attained, in any aspect.

    Anyway, even you called Jita kyō-ei "a moral and pedagogical Judo ideal", and that exactly is the reason, why I think that jūdō, an expression which I, in principle, regard as an abbreviation for Kanō Jigōrō's "Nihon-den Kōdōkan Jūdō" as defined by him, actually can't be thought and can't be taught properly, excluding Jita kyō-ei as one of its "goals". If it's tried, the result enforcedly, quasi automatically, is a thing or entity different to (this definition of) jūdō, even if the techniques used may be identical. In fact that's what I - perhaps capable of being misunderstood, and therefore unsuccessfully - try to say since my first post in this thread. So much about my command of both, the English language, which, at least, is foreign to me, but of Sei-ryoku Zen’yō as well. Shocked


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    Anatol

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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Thu Sep 18, 2014 7:06 am

    Hi Mr. Reinberger


    Reinberger wrote: What only I, admittedly, don't seem to get, is your distinction between "fundamental" and "universal" in that context, as, in your posting, one time you write Sei-ryoku Zen’yō "IS a fundamental principle which comes from nature", but another time you note "it is NOT an universal principle, because its only the best use of energy which comes from nature".
    If you see "seiryoku zenyo" as a foundamental priciple of nature, it only describes, "what is" foundamental in nature (descriptive). What is foundamental in nature isn't automatically good for ethics. In nature there is the survival of the fittest, but that would be no foundamental principle for ethics, because ethics ask, what is good and righteous for individuals and for society (normativ). To go from "what is" (descriptive) to "what should be" (ethically) is a false conclusion - often done and known as naturalistic fallacy.


    However, if I still included it within the expression of "ideal(s)" earlier, I did it because I doubt that anybody is able to apply it really everywhere and every time. In that sense, I regard Sei-ryoku Zen’yō as an ideal too.
    The foundamental principle is, that nature doesn't waste energy and is highly efficient (best use of energy). As a precept or rule for application to a human being (best use of spirit and force/energy) its an ideal, I do agree and has to do with naturalness, simplicity and simplicity and a calm and clear mind.

    When I also wrote about "Jita kyō-ei" as an ideal, I didn't want to imply an exclusivity of that maxim. While Jita kyō-ei may not be "a fundamental moral and social principle", as it isn't "based on individual freedom and to respect the freedom of the others", because of its pedigree (maybe the time, when it was formulated, may also play a role here), I don't see how it should rule out the application of "Fundamental Human Rights". Maybe, that you could make that clearer for me?
    For sure it wouldn't rule out Human Rights. But if you see "jita kyoei" as a foundamental, universal ethical principle, on which you can build society (like Kano does, as I understand the Kano quotes above from noboru), there would be no Human Rights, because Human rights first and foundamental on rights of individuals only because the are human beeings. They have no duties for selfperfection, be part of perfection of society and so on.


    As of yet, I regard "Jita kyō-ei" as an ideal that is pretty good combinable with "fundamental moral and social principles" accepted within a modern, human society, principles like the "Fundamental Human Rights", or values like, for example, democracy.
    If these ideals stay private and not become law, then there is no problem at all and they may be helpful in daily life.

    you also wrote: "On the individual side the aim of steady learning, devoloping, progressing, perfection of Mind an Body, Character and social skills can lead to a very unhappy life and nether be in presence. There is always something to do, learn, develop, refine, polish, achieve - but life is no race. If you do it for your self, its your own failure but if you demand it from others you are the problem."

    I thought, I'd made it clear, how I think that can and has to be avoided. Haven't I even explicit warned against what I termed "fanaticism or extremism" in that regard?
    Sorry that I didn't read this.

    Apart from that, I regard this "steady learning, developing, etc." you talk about, as an attribute downright typical and even assumed for a budōka, while it seems to be requested nowhere, that "perfection" actually has to be attained, in any aspect.

    Not only for a budoka: learning and learning and doing and learning and doing are the first steps in every science or art.

    Is this a wrong translation, what Kano said:

    “ Judo is the way of the highest or most efficient use of both physical and mental energy. Through training in the attack and defence techniques of judo, the practitioner nurtures their physical and mental strength, and gradually embodies the essence of the Way of Judo. Thus, the ultimate objective of Judo discipline is to be utilized as a means to self-perfection, and thenceforth to make a positive contribution to society. ”


    Anyway, even you called Jita kyō-ei "a moral and pedagogical Judo ideal", and that exactly is the reason, why I think that jūdō, an expression which I, in principle, regard as an abbreviation for Kanō Jigōrō's "Nihon-den Kōdōkan Jūdō" as defined by him, actually can't be thought and can't be taught properly, excluding Jita kyō-ei as one of its "goals". If it's tried, the result enforcedly, quasi automatically, is a thing or entity different to (this definition of) jūdō, even if the techniques used may be identical. In fact that's what I - perhaps capable of being misunderstood, and therefore unsuccessfully - try to say since my first post in this thread. So much about my command of both, the English language, which, at least, is foreign to me, but of Sei-ryoku Zen’yō as well. Shocked
    Thats clear that seiryoku zenyo and jita kyoei fits together but most of the clubs in my country have a vivid club culture, they help, respect and support each over, have social activity and so on, but not because they are a Judo club. They do it simple as every club or association does like soccer, chessclubs, climbers or philatelists.

    You mustn't be shocked. Thats a very old discussion between Humanists and Liberals and dates back even to antic China between Confucianists and Daoists.

    .

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