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    Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life



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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Wed Oct 01, 2014 1:13 pm

    Anatol wrote:Hi NBK
    I am looking at the origin and genuin concepts and ideas, where, when, from which thinkers/philosophers and schools they arise, are elaborated and shaped, what are the key principles and the core ideas and which develepement they take, in which directions they went, what and whom they influenced and when they got mixed, expanded, abbriavated, declined, renewed. As a Historian you have to look at the more concrete and evident (writings, scriptures, documents, letters ...)

    as I don't think that anyone*, particularly Kanó shihan, sat down and developed a martial art around Chinese classical philosophy of any flavor.  But, clearly he and others close to him cite certain philosophic concepts, and the majority stem from the sources we're addressing.  The problem is that they apparently stem from a number of traditions, but I think that's more of our problem (in that we want to understand it in a clear category - is it A? or B?) rather than their problem.
    We all do have a cultural and social background and its not really important, if you know all these influences, to think and act within. So even if Kano would have known nothing about Confucianism, his high respect and esteem of education and moral-social selfperfection to contribute to society is a core concept of confucianism.

    As an example, CK has noted several times that Kanó shihan mentions water many times (IIRC he wrote 'obsession' a couple of times).  That is a classic Taoist element associated with 無為 mui  (CH: wu wei), the 'effortless action'.  Of course, water is important to many philosophies (witness Baptist Christianity, Catholicism, etc.) but this again fits exactly into the flow of Taoism / Confucianism.
    "Water" in classical Daoism (Laozi) isn't associated with "wu wei"  (無為) but with "rou" (柔 = ju) and "ruo" (弱):

    Laozi 78:


    Nothing under heaven is softer or more yielding than water;
    But when it attacks things hard and resistant there is not one of them that can prevail.
    For they can find no way of altering it.

    That the yielding conquers the resistant
    And the soft conquers the hard is a fact known by all men,
    Yet utilized by none.

    (transl. by Waley)

    Water is also associated with "shan" (善), which is the same "good, virtuous" as "zen" in "seiryoku zenyo"

    Laozi 8


    The highest good is like that of water.
    The goodness of is that it benefits the ten thousand creatures;
    Yet itself does not scramble,
    But is content with the places that all men disdain.
    It is this makes water so near to the Way.

    (transl. by Waley)

    "Wu Wei" is associated with the Dao, because the Dao doesn't act with purpose and desires. The idea, that "Wu Wei" is associated with "water" and "flow" and so on, is a western thought, mostly introduced by Alan Watts (The Watercourse Way). "Wu Wei" in his original daoist context is associated with "De" (德 , highest virtue, http://ctext.org/dao-de-jing#n11629 ), acting like the Dao, which doesn't act, but nothing is left undone (dao chang wu wei er wu bu wei, 道常無為而無不為), because of naturalness (ziran 自然) and simplicity (pu 樸 , Laozi 37).

    But as you see, "Water" in classical Laozi Daoism is associated with "ju" (the same is in "Judo") and "zen" (the same as in seiryoku zenyo)

    (only wanted to go back to the topic of the thread opener ...)


    Still Water in Zhuangzi Daoism is an example for the clear and calm spirit (qing jing shen 清 靜 神):

    When water is still, its clearness shows the beard and eyebrows (of him who looks into it). It is a perfect Level, and the greatest artificer takes his rule from it. Such is the clearness of still water, and how much greater is that of the human Spirit! The still mind of the sage is the mirror of heaven and earth, the glass of all things. Vacancy, stillness, placidity, tastelessness, quietude, silence, and non-action - this is the Level of heaven and earth, and the perfection of the Dao and its characteristics.


    To connoisseur of culture, music and art:  http://www.silkqin.com/02qnpu/27sjts/sj03qjj.htm
    Thanks again, and particularly for adding the kanji.

    I added the bold emphasis on the relationship of water to 'jú' - so, I was done in by Alan Watts! and so many years ago. When I first read these texts, there was no internet, no selection of translations of and commentaries on Chinese classics by Waley and Legge freely available on the web.

    But your points are well taken, that there are many interpretations of simple quatrains, pairs, etc., and while there is latitude for differences, some widely read interpretations are simply wrong.

    One concept to note above is the emphasis on de 徳 JA:toku, or morality in Japanese - Kanó shihan certainly emphasized morality. Moral training was the subject of his first series of books, actually pamphlets, and remained a constant theme throughout his life.



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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by Anatol on Wed Oct 01, 2014 5:44 pm

    Hi NBK

    NBK wrote:
    I added the bold emphasis on the relationship of water to 'jú' - so, I was done in by Alan Watts!  and so many years ago. When I first read these texts, there was no internet, no selection of translations of and commentaries on Chinese classics by Waley and Legge freely available on the web.
    Alan Watts has his merits, but he - as a scholar for religious studies  and not reading classical chinese - is mixing up classical daoist thought with zen buddhism, neo confucianism and even advaita. Legge and Waley were sinologists, but as it is in science, science is developing fast and a lot of work was done researching daoism from the nineteeneighties  on to presence.  At the internet there is an overview of many different Laozi translations from scholar-sinologist (Lau, Henricks) to free style feng shui interpretations (Mitchell) in many languages and at the bottom about 100 english versions.


    But most important: You have to understand the classical chinese concepts and ideas of the houndred school of thoughts (諸子百家), to draw your own conclusions, because as Kano as an japanese scholar at the end of the 19th centery to the beginning of the 20th  the Laozi (Daode Jing) doesn't arise out of nohere and also even translations of sinologists have their shortcuts, limitations in style and poetry, flaws, personal bias and affinities.

    One concept to note above is the emphasis on de 徳 JA:toku, or morality in Japanese - Kanó shihan certainly emphasized morality.  Moral training was the subject of his first series of books, actually pamphlets, and remained a constant theme throughout his life.

    Kano emphases the "De" in a traditional confucian meaning as learning and selfperfection, benevolence and righteousness to contribute to a better society. In classical daoism the "De" of confucianism is refused as a beginning of separation from the Dao and from naturalness and simplicity.

    Laozi 38


    A man of the highest virtue does not keep to virtue and that is whyhe has virtue.
    A man of the lowest virtue never strays from virtue and that is whyhe is without virtue.
    The former never acts yet leaves nothing undone.
    The latter acts but there are things left undone.
    A man of the highest benevolence acts, but from no ulterior motive.
    A man of the highest rectitude acts, but from ulterior motive.
    A man most conversant in the rites acts, but when no one responds rollsup his sleeves and resorts to persuasion by force.

    Hence when the way was lost there was virtue;
    When virtue was lost there was benevolence;
    When benevolence was lost there was rectitude;
    When rectitude was lost there were the rites.


    Laozi 48


    In the pursuit of learning one knows more every day;
    In the pursuit of the way one does less every day.
    One does less and less until one does nothing at all, and when onedoes nothing at all there is nothing that is undone.

    Classic Daoism renewals "De" in its oldest meanings as power or old (highest) virtue (like arete in greek). There is a very well written long paper in english devoted to the developments and meanings of "De" in ancient china, written by Scott Barnwell (pdf file): http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp235_de_character_early_China.pdf

    The Daoist "De" is more like the "shan" = zen as in "zeiryoku zenyo" as "good" and "virtuous" in a most matching way with nature, naturalness and simplicity and not as a human concept/idea to correct the way (dao) of man.

    This kind of "De" is also very interesting to Judoka (at least to me ...), because of its "best use of energy" or "minimum effort, maximum efficiancy:

    Zhuangzi 19.13

    The Artisan

    The artisan Chui made things round (and square) more exactly than if he had used the circle and square. The operation of his fingers on (the forms of) things was like the transformations of them (in nature), and required no application of his mind; and so his Intelligence was entire and encountered no resistance. To be unthought of by the foot that wears it is the fitness of a shoe; to be unthought of by the waist is the fitness of a girdle. When one's wisdom does not think of the right or the wrong (of a question under discussion), that shows the suitability of the mind (for the question); when one is conscious of no inward change, or outward attraction, that shows the mastery of affairs. He who perceives at once the fitness, and never loses the sense of it, has the fitness that forgets all about what is fitting.

    (translated by Legge)

    Zhuangzi 3.2.:

    The Cook

    His cook was cutting up an ox for the ruler Wen Hui. Whenever he applied his hand, leaned forward with his shoulder, planted his foot, and employed the pressure of his knee, in the audible ripping off of the skin, and slicing operation of the knife, the sounds were all in regular cadence. Movements and sounds proceeded as in the dance of 'the Mulberry Forest' and the blended notes of the King Shou.' The ruler said, 'Ah! Admirable! That your art should have become so perfect!' (Having finished his operation), the cook laid down his knife, and replied to the remark, 'What your servant loves is the method of the Dao, something in advance of any art. When I first began to cut up an ox, I saw nothing but the (entire) carcase. After three years I ceased to see it as a whole. Now I deal with it in a spirit-like manner, and do not look at it with my eyes. The use of my senses is discarded, and my spirit acts as it wills. Observing the natural lines, (my knife) slips through the great crevices and slides through the great cavities, taking advantage of the facilities thus presented. My art avoids the membranous ligatures, and much more the great bones. A good cook changes his knife every year; (it may have been injured) in cutting - an ordinary cook changes his every month - (it may have been) broken. Now my knife has been in use for nineteen years; it has cut up several thousand oxen, and yet its edge is as sharp as if it had newly come from the whetstone. There are the interstices of the joints, and the edge of the knife has no (appreciable) thickness; when that which is so thin enters where the interstice is, how easily it moves along! The blade has more than room enough. Nevertheless, whenever I come to a complicated joint, and see that there will be some difficulty, I proceed anxiously and with caution, not allowing my eyes to wander from the place, and moving my hand slowly. Then by a very slight movement of the knife, the part is quickly separated, and drops like (a clod of) earth to the ground. Then standing up with the knife in my hand, I look all round, and in a leisurely manner, with an air of satisfaction, wipe it clean, and put it in its sheath.' The ruler Wen Hui said, 'Excellent! I have heard the words of my cook, and learned from them the nourishment of (our) life.'

    (translated by Legge)

    Zhuangzi 19.10:

    The Swimmer

    Confucius was looking at the cataract near the gorge of Lu, which fell a height of 240 cubits, and the spray of which floated a distance of forty li, (producing a turbulence) in which no tortoise, gavial, fish, or turtle could play. He saw, however, an old man swimming about in it, as if he had sustained some great calamity, and wished to end his life. Confucius made his disciples hasten along the stream to rescue the man; and by the time they had gone several hundred paces, he was walking along singing, with his hair dishevelled, and enjoying himself at the foot of the embankment. Confucius followed and asked him, saying, 'I thought you were a sprite; but, when I look closely at you, I see that you are a man. Let me ask if you have any particular way of treading the water.' The man said, 'No, I have no particular way. I began (to learn the art) at the very earliest time; as I grew up, it became my nature to practise it; and my success in it is now as sure as fate. I enter and go down with the water in the very centre of its whirl, and come up again with it when it whirls the other way. I follow the way of the water, and do nothing contrary to it of myself - this is how I tread it.' Confucius said, 'What do you mean by saying that you began to learn the art at the very earliest time; that as you grew up, it became your nature to practise it, and that your success in it now is as sure as fate?' The man replied, 'I was born among these hills and lived contented among them - that was why I say that I have trod this water from my earliest time. I grew up by it, and have been happy treading it - that is why I said that to tread it had become natural to me. I know not how I do it, and yet I do it - that is why I say that my success is as sure as fate.'

    (translated by Legge)


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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Mon Oct 06, 2014 9:36 pm

    I buyed book "Mind Over Muscle-Writings from the Founder of Judo” by Jigoro Kano and compiled by Naoki Murata. There are compilation of more Kano's articles from diferent time of life. There are more interesting notes about Kano views of his principles. I will add some interesting quotes for me to this discussion.


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    Principles of Judo and Their Applications to all Phases of Human Activity By Jigoro Kano

    Post by noboru on Sat Nov 22, 2014 8:44 am

    Source: http://ejmas.com/jcs/jcsart_kano_0201.htm
    Principles of Judo and Their Applications to all Phases of Human Activity
    By Jigoro Kano

    Jigoro Kano was the founder of judo. The following is a transcript of a lecture he gave at the Parnassus Society, Athens, Greece, on June 5, 1934. Reprinted at EJMAS 2001. All rights reserved.

    Ever since I came to work in public, I have been engaged in Education, for some time filling the post of the Director of the Bureau of Primary and Secondary Education in Japan, and for 24 years being the Principal of the Higher Normal College in Tokyo.

    As is natural for a man of such a career, I had to answer many questions like the following:

    The use of religion as a means of moral culture no one doubts. But as morals are taught in religion not by reason, but by ‘faith’ or belief, there may be different persons having different beliefs. How can one decide which belief is correct and which is not? In this stage of enlightenment we must solve this question in a way to which everybody will agree. How do you solve this question?
    Since thousands of years, thinkers of different countries have advanced hundreds of different views regarding morals. Some have arrived at certain conclusions through their own process of reasoning while others came to advocate something different also from their way of thinking. This is the reason why there are so many different ethical systems. They have been contending under different banners from the time of Plato and Aristotle in the West and of Lao-tse and Confucius in the East. There seems to be no end to the disputes. How do you reconcile these different views?
    We all respect tradition and nobody would think lightly of the importance of tradition in the teaching of morals. But how can we prove that morals taught by tradition are always correct, and never need alteration? Do not facts prove that some of the teachings of morality deemed most important at a certain stage in the progress of mankind came to diminish in importance at a later stage? Do not different countries differ in their traditions? Is there any reliable test by which to judge the validity of such tradition so that we can keep to those which we deem valid?
    Often confronted with questions like these, it occurred to me that the principles of Judo which I have been studying since my young days can best solve such difficult questions. So I tried to apply these principles to the solution of all the different problems I had to encounter, and in no case did I find any difficulty in applying them.
    Those principles of Judo are:

    1st. ‘Whatever be the object, the best way of attaining it shall be the maximum or the highest efficient use of mental and physical energy directed to that aim.

    2nd. ‘The harmony and progress of a body, consisting as it does of different individuals, however few or many the number of those individuals may be, can best be kept and attained by mutual aid and concession.’

    If I had time, and the nature of this Parnassus Society were such to allow me to explain the process by which I had arrived at my conclusions, it would be very interesting and easier for you to understand the real import of what I am going to say. However, leaving that part to a Lecture to be given on some other occasion, I shall now proceed to show you how to apply those principles to different phases of Human Activity.

    In feudal times in Japan there were many martial exercises such as fencing, archery, the use of spears, etc. Amongst them was one called Jujitsu, which consisted principally of the different ways of fighting without weapons, although occasionally some weapons were used. In my young days I studied two different schools of this art under three eminent masters of the time. I further received instructions from many other masters representing other schools. But Jujitsu originally was not an application to contests of the principles of science but simply a group of different methods of attack and defence devised by different masters, one school representing a group of methods devised by one master and other schools representing the devices of others. Such being the case, there was no fundamental principle by which to test the validity of those methods.

    This led me to study this subject very seriously, and I finally came to conceive of one all-pervading principle, that is: ‘Whatever be the object, it can best be achieved by the highest or the maximum efficient use of mental and physical energy directed to that purpose or aim.’

    Then I studied anew, as far as my research could reach, all the methods of attack and defence taught by different masters prior to my time. I then found out that there were many methods which could stand this test while many others could not. Preserving those which I deemed valid and adding many others of my own device which I felt confident could stand the test, I organised in 1882 my own system of attack and defence. Judo is the name of this fundamental principle, as well as the name for this principle, together with its application, whereas Jujitsu is the name for a group of different devices not founded on such principle. I named the institution where this principle is studied, and its application taught, Kodokan, which literally means ‘an institution for studying the way.’

    This new attempt proved very successful. In Japan to-day almost no one studies the old methods, Judo being taught in almost all schools above middle grade as well as in the army, navy and the police, and the name Jujitsu has almost been superseded by the new name Judo.

    This success in the application of the principle of maximum efficiency to the method of contest led me to think it advisable to make a similar attempt in connection with physical education.

    In dealing with this matter I must first of all make clear what is the aim of physical education. I believe the aim of physical education should include at least the four following items: Health, Strength, Utility and Spiritual Training, including Intellectual, Moral, and Aesthetic phases.

    Nobody would disagree with this statement, but I wish to call your special attention to the fact that nobody, even the specialists in physical education, seems to study the respective importance of those four items. Are not many of the promoters of physical education laying too much strength and skill? Are not teachers of gymnastics paying their attention almost exclusively to the interior organs and the harmonious development of the body.

    Into such mistakes people naturally fall because the aim of physical education is not clearly set forth and the inter-relation of these four items is not seriously studied. This happens because the principle of Maximum-Efficiency is not yet universally recognised and but few people seem to study such a subject from the point of view of this principle.

    I shall now proceed to speak about the application of this principle to moral and intellectual training.

    In a similar way as I have said in connection with the four items of physical education, the inter-relation of intellectual and moral culture as well as these two with physical culture should be a subject of serious study. However, not only people at large but even educators are quite indifferent to this. In intellectual culture, strictly speaking, the acquisition of knowledge and the cultivation of intellectual power are so correlated that they cannot be treated separately. Still, the cultivation of the power of reasoning and judgment and the mere acquisition of knowledge may be looked at in different lights and the respective share they should have in intellectual culture should be specially studied.

    Moral culture also includes several items, and the inter-relation and relative importance of those items should be carefully considered.

    First of all moral culture must be pursued from the intellectual side, enabling a man to know what is right and what is wrong and also enabling him to reason out and decide this even under complicated circumstances. At the same time cultivation of the emotional and volitional power, as well as the importance of forming good habits, must not be forgotten. But very few people seem to study these things seriously. This, I believe, is also due to the lack of recognition of the Principle of Maximum-Efficency.

    Culture, whether it be physical, intellectual or moral, can only be properly acquired when due consideration is given to the relative importance and correlation of different items included in that culture.

    I shall now give one very simple example of how most people are in their daily life regardless of this all important principle. Whenever one has to read a book, magazine or newspaper, on should select out of many such as are deemed most profitable to read at the time. But most people are too regardless about those matters.

    The same thing can be said in regard to diet, clothing and housing, and the choosing of things we buy, in the transaction of business, in short, in all daily dealings in Life. Only through the right understanding and correct application of this principle can one make one’s body strong, healthy and useful. One can become a person of high moral and intellectual standing. One can accumulate wealth, sufficient not only to make oneself happy but also to be able to help others and spend for the good of society. Only people who are loyal to our principle can become such men.

    Thus, if this principle is applicable to all phases of human activity, the same thing must hold true in regard to the activity of a group of men, whether that be small, as in the case of a party of a few persons or large as in the case of a nation having a large population. But for a group of men to act as an individual it must be well organised, so that every member of the group shall act in harmony one with the other. This harmony can only be attained and retained by mutual aid and concession, leading to mutual welfare and benefit. This mutual aid and concession is therefore another fundamental principle of Judo which is very important for the keying-up and perfecting of social life. Cannot, then, this same principle be applied in a similar way to international relations?

    I conclude my Lecture by quoting a part of my speech which I made in Madrid last year on the occasion of the Meeting of the Interparliamentary Union. ‘Fortunately the ideal of international life does not differ greatly among civilised peoples, but when one is asked what lies in the background to make different people have a similar ideal, one may perhaps be puzzled. The moral ideal of religion having belief as its background cannot explain it, since there is no reason why all beliefs should coincide. Then can different systems of philosophy be regarded as the determining force of such coincidence? It cannot be sought in philosophy, because those philosophical systems stand aloof from each other and can never be reconciled.

    ‘Then what is the real determining force of such a coincidence?

    ‘The determining force lies in this. Civilised people, living in society, do not even dream of quitting the social life and living entirely secluded from other people. As long as a person wishes to be a member of the community, he must deem it his duty to keep society in being and do his part to prevent its disintegration. Again, so long as a man lives in society he himself is benefited by its progress, while on the other hand, if society deteriorates he loses what he might otherwise get. When any member of society is made conscious of these facts he will be led automatically to endeavour to maintain and improve our social life. To maintain social life every individual member of it must know how to refrain from egoistic conduct and must concede to and help others whenever that is necessary to that end. At the same time one must endeavour to the best of one’s ability to serve society, remembering also to care for oneself so long as that does not conflict with the interests of others and of society at large. This benefiting of society as well as of himself can best be achieved by the highest or the maximum-efficient use of mental and physical energy in that direction. In short, the highest or the maximum-efficient use of mental and physical energy for attaining one’s aim on the one hand, and the mutual aid and concession aiming at mutual welfare and benefit on the other, are the two great determining factors of social harmony and progress. Whether consciously or not, civilised people are being led by these factors. The fact that people now speak so much of efficiency and scientific management, the fact that the League of Nations was formed, and that security and disarmament have nowadays become outstanding subjects, all these show that those factors should be thoroughly studied and their true spirit proclaimed to the whole world.


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    Memories of Jigoro Kano's Visit to the London Budokwai in August 1933 By Trevor Leggett

    Post by noboru on Sun Nov 23, 2014 5:45 pm

    Memories of Jigoro Kano's Visit to the London Budokwai in August 1933 By Trevor Leggett

    Journal of Combative Sport, March 2000
    Memories of Jigoro Kano's Visit to the London Budokwai in August 1933

    By Trevor Leggett
    Reprinted courtesy of Richard Bowen and the Budokwai, http://www.budokwai.org. Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.

    At that time the Budokwai was in small premises near Victoria Station. It was originally one of a small line of shops, including a little restaurant. It was a side street; the other side of the street was the high wall of Buckingham Palace grounds. The Budokwai had a ground floor dojo of about twenty tatami; the basement was another dojo of the same size, and the showers and changing rooms.

    I was a young judo enthusiast of under twenty years when Dr. Kano came with Mr. Sumiyuki Kotani and Mr. Masami Takasaki. We were able to become members of the Kodokan, and I received from Dr. Kano a Ni-kyu certificate. Dr. Kano watched two English Budokwai members performing Nage-no-kata, and then Mr. Gunji Koizumi and Mr. Yukio Tani perforing Ju-no-kata. Koizumi had introduced some of his own ideas into the kata, and I heard that Dr. Kano remarked: "That is a modification of Ju-no-kata." He himself demonstrated a couple of the Itsutsu-no-kata. It must have been very difficult in the confined space. He made a little explanation for the English members, in his impeccable "Headmaster's English". (I mean by this that each word was separately and clearly pronounced, as an English Headmaster does to set a good example of correct pronunciation to pupils.) He told us that it would be difficult for us to understand the principles shown in the Itsutsu-no-kata. He added, with an unexpected touch of humour: "It is even more difficult to perform it. I myself have been studying it for over forty years, and I think I can now perform the first three correctly!"

    On one of the days of his visit, he had been invited to an afternoon garden party at Buckingham Palace. It was arranged that he would come on to the Budokwai (which did not open till about 6 p.m. -- the members all had jobs which they could not leave till about 5:30.) As it happened, Dr. Kano left the Buckingham Palace party at about 5. He was wearing Court dress, which in those days was magnificently decorated with gold braid. As the Budokwai was so close to the Palace, he walked, but found it still closed. It was a warm sunny day, and he had not brought a raincoat. The Budokwai secretary arrived in a hurry just before 6; he looked in at the little restaurant next to the Budokwai, and (as he told me later), he saw this wonderful old Japanese man in full Court dress, sitting very upright and drinking tea, without any sign of embarrassment, before the amazed gaze of a few other customers in the tea shop.
    Jigoro Kano doing kata
    I heard that on this same European trip, the coach in which Dr. Kano was travelling in Italy went off the mountain road, and nearly over the cliff edge. As it hung there perilously with half its length in space, some of the Italian passengers were almost hysterical with fear, but Dr. Kano sat undisturbed till they were able to climb to safety. (I heard this story at second-hand, so I cannot vouch for its truth in details, but certainly something of the sort happened. Perhaps what I have set down here may confirm some other more direct account.)

    In London, Dr. Kano gave a public talk on the principles of judo to an audience of about 250 I should estimate, at the drill hall off Kensington High Street. We had expected it to consist largely of demonstrations of technique, and though he did show some movements, the main part of the talk was on intellectual and philosophic lines. This was a considerable surprise to most of the British audience, but his obvious intellectual capacity, combined with his almost magical charisma as founder of the mysterious judo, completely captivated the audience for nearly two hours.

    He illustrated in various ways Saidai Noritsu Genri, which he translated for us as the principle of maximum efficiency. He said that goldfish in a tank could not live without some green stuff, but if there were too much, they could not live either. This particular example did not mean anything to me, as my family had never kept goldfish. But I was fascinated with the point, that to use too much force was against the principle of judo. Before going to university I had asked about the courses. I had been told that taking notes of the professors' lectures was an important and tiring job. So in the three months before going to London University, I learned shorthand, and got to a good speed, 160 words a minute. The high-speed instructor told us that it would be impossible unless we held the pen or pencil about halfway up, and very lightly but firmly. After this training, I had noticed that most of the British people held the pen rather tightly and near the point. This meant that they had to move the hand along the paper after nearly every word. I had noticed casually that this seemed very inefficient. But when I heard Dr. Kano speak of his principle of maximum efficiency as applying not only to technique on the mats but throughout life, I suddenly had a realization of what he meant. The principle could be applied in the smallest things of life as well as the largest things. Too much force -- holding the pen too tightly -- was as bad as too little force -- holding the pen too loosely. I understood that my whole nation, in one of our most common activities, namely writing -- had not understood the principle of maximum efficiency.

    Another point he made was that this universal principle could be learnt in various ways -- for example, through commercial activity. But, he said, one of the best ways was through judo practice. He said that judo practice was a very good way to learn (1) self-control, (2) will: how to actualize long-term goals by suppressing short-term desires, and (3) mutual co-operation, rising above a superficial conflict to give mutual aid and benefit. British people were familiar with some of these points. For instance, we had long had a tradition about sport, that it should be training in character: one tries very hard, but one is not cast down in failure, nor over-elated by success. But the sporting tradition had nothing like the scope of Dr. Kano's principle, and it was already becoming eroded by professionalism. As a matter of fact, Dr. Kano was against having judo championships for this very reason, thinking that it probably would destroy the character-forming aspects of judo. In this he seems to have been right.

    One of the things that puzzled us was Dr. Kano's insistence that the principles of judo (maximum efficiency: mutual aid and concession leading to mutual welfare and benefit) are all-pervading, though developed in Japan. He said repeatedly that these are not national things, but universal. I could not understand why he insisted on this point; I thought it was obvious. After all, Newton had discovered gravity, but it was not an English thing but a universal principle applying everywhere. Roentgen had discovered X-rays, but they were not German. Why was Dr. Kano emphasizing that judo principles were not specially Japanese, but all-pervading? He added that other branches of budo such as kendo were specialized applications of the universal principle of judo, namely maximum efficiency and mutual aid. It was not till I went to Japan towards the end of the 1930s that I understood why Dr. Kano insisted on this point, and how brave he was in doing so. He saw that Japan's future role would be to contribute to world culture, and not regard itself as a closed and superior society. I realized clearly the nature of that nationalism; high-minded though it undoubtedly sometimes was, I heard Admiral Jiro Nango give an address at the Dojo-biraki in 1940. He said that although Dr. Kano had seemed sometimes to say that kendo and budo in general were applications of the principles of judo, it would be truer to say that judo, like the other branches of budo, were in fact manifestations of the Japanese spirit of Yamato damashii.

    Hearing this I realized what a clear-sighted man Dr. Kano was.


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    quote from article Jigoro Kano in North America

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 21, 2014 5:36 pm

    Kano passed through Seattle again in July 1936. During his speech on July 6, he told his audience that the spirit of judo was not a spirit of competition but a spirit of cooperation. He added that Japan wanted the Olympic Games because nations became more sympathetic toward one another through competing in sport. Said he, "If China understood Japan’s intentions, they would try to cooperate in all matters. China is torn by internal wars. They misunderstand Japan’s real intention."

    Kano’s last visit to North America came during his return to Japan from an Olympic meeting in Cairo in 1938. His first stop was in New York City, and on April 17, Kano and members of the New York Dojo demonstrated judo for reporters, using some Japanese American black belts as his models. As usual, Kano accompanied the demonstration with a speech about how thinking about judo had caused him to create his theories about maximum efficiency and mutual welfare. When a reporter asked him how he reconciled the drive to win with the need sometimes to submit to overwhelming force, he replied, "When yielding is the highest efficient used of energy, then yielding is judo."

    Source: article Jigoro Kano in North America by Joseph R. Svinth

    Last edited by noboru on Sun Dec 21, 2014 6:05 pm; edited 1 time in total


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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 21, 2014 5:57 pm

    In the link in last post are two quotes of sources, but the original links to articles on http://www.bstkd.com is alive.
    If someone has these texts, prease could you post or link them? It could be interesting for content of this discussion.

    Maekawa, Mineo. "Jigoro Kano’s Thoughts on Judo, with Special Reference to the Approach of Judo Thought during His Jujutsu Training Years," Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, Kodokan, Report V (1978), reprint from http://www.bstkd.com/kano1.htm.

    ----- and Hasegawa, Y. "Studies on Jigoro Kano: Significance of His Ideals on Physical Education and Judo," Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, Kodokan, Report II (1963); reprint from http://www.bstkd.com/jobo.1.htm.


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    chapter JUDO OUTSIDE THE DOJO from article of Jigoro Kano

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 21, 2014 6:14 pm

    Source: http://www.yoshinjujitsu.com/kodokan_judo_article.htm

    This article is written by Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo - 1882. From his book entitled “Kodokan Judo”, reprinted by Kodansha International Ltd., 1986


    Encouraged by my success in applying the principle of maximum efficiency to the techniques of attack and defense, I then asked if the same principle could not be applied to the improvement of health, that is, to physical education.

    Many opinions have been advanced to answer the question, what is the aim of physical education? After giving the matter a great deal of thought and exchanging views with many knowledgeable persons, I concluded that its aim is making the body strong, useful and healthy while building character through mental and moral discipline. Having thus clarified the purpose of physical education, let us see how closely the common methods of physical education conform to the principle of maximum efficiency.

    The ways in which persons train their bodies are many and varied, but they fall into two general categories: sports and gymnastics. It is difficult to generalize about sports, since there are so many different types, but they share one important characteristic: they are competitive in nature. The objective in devising them has not been to foster balanced physical development or sound health. Inevitably some muscles are consistently overworked while others are neglected. In the process, damage is sometimes done to various areas of the body. As physical education, many sports cannot be rated highly-in fact, should be discarded or improved-for they fail to make the most efficient use of mental and physical energy and impede progress toward the goal of promoting health, strength and usefulness.

    By contrast, gymnastics rate highly as physical education. Practice is not injurious to the body, is generally beneficial to health, and promotes the balanced development of the body. Still, gymnastics as commonly practiced today are lacking in two respects: interest and usefulness.

    There are many ways in which gymnastics can be made more appealing, but one that I advocate is to do a group of exercises I have tentatively worked out. Each combination of limb, neck and body movements is based on the principle of maximum efficiency and represents an idea. Done in combination, they will effectively promote harmonious physical and moral development. Another set of exercises I created, the Seiryoku Zenyo Kokumin Taiiku (Maximum-Efficiency National Physical Education), is practiced at the Kodokan. Its movements not only lead to balanced physical development but also provide training in the basics of attack and defense.

    For physical education to be truly effective, it must be based on the principle of efficient use of mental and physical energy. I am convinced that future advances in physical education will be made in conformity with this principle.


    So far I have touched on the two main aspects of judo training: development of the body and training in the forms of attack and defense. The primary training methods for either purpose are (1) kata and (2) randori.

    Kata, which means "form," is a system of prearranged movements that teach the fundamentals of attack and defense. In addition to throwing and holding (also practiced in randori), it includes hitting, kicking, stabbing.

    slashing and a number of other techniques. These latter occur only in kata because it is only in kata that the movements are prearranged and each partner knows what the other will do.

    Randori means "free practice." Partners pair off and vie with each other as they would in an actual match. They may throw, pin, choke and apply joint locks, but they may not hit, kick or employ other techniques appropriate only to actual combat. The main conditions in randori are that participants take care not to injure each other and that they follow judo etiquette, which is mandatory if one is to derive the maximum benefit from randori.

    Randori may be practiced either as training in the methods of attack and defense or as physical education. In either case, all movements are made in conformity with the principle of maximum efficiency. If training in attack and defense is the objective, concentration on the proper execution of techniques is sufficient. But beyond that, randori is ideal for physical culture, since it involves all parts of the body, and unlike gymnastics, all its movements are purposeful and executed with spirit. The objective of this systematic physical training is to perfect control over mind and body and to prepare a person to meet any emergency or attack, accidental or intentional.


    Both kata and randori are forms of mental training, but of the two, randori is the more effective.

    In randori, one must search out the opponent's weaknesses and be ready to attack with all the resources at his disposal the moment the opportunity presents itself, without violating the rules of judo. Practicing randori tends to make the student earnest, sincere, thoughtful, cautious and deliberate in action. At the same time, he or she learns to value and make quick decisions and to act promptly, for, whether attacking or defending, there is no place in randori for indecisiveness.

    In randori one can never be sure what technique the opponent will employ next, so he must be constantly on guard. Being alert becomes second nature. One acquires poise, the self-confidence that comes from knowing that he can cope with any eventuality. The powers of attention and observation, imagination, of reasoning and judgement are naturally heightened, and these are all useful attributes in daily life as well as in the dojo.

    To practice randori is to investigate the complex mental-physical relations existing between contestants. Hundreds of valuable lessons are derivable from this study.

    In randori we learn to employ the principle of maximum efficiency even when we could easily overpower an opponent. Indeed, it is much more impressive to beat an opponent with proper technique than with brute force. This lesson is equally applicable in daily life: the student realizes that persuasion backed up by sound logic is ultimately more effective than coercion.

    Another tenet of randori is to apply just the right amount of force-never too much, never too little. All of us know of people who have failed to accomplish what they set out to do because of not properly gauging the amount of effort required. At one extreme, they fall short of the mark; at the other, they do not know when to stop.

    In randori we occasionally come up against an opponent who is frantic in his desire to win. We are trained not to resist directly with force but to play with the opponent until his fury and power are exhausted, then attack. This lesson comes in handy when we encounter such a person in daily life. Since no amount of reasoning will have any effect on him, all we can do is wait for him to calm down.

    These are but a few examples of the contributions randori can make to the intellectual training of young minds.


    Let us now look at the ways in which an understanding of the principle of maximum efficiency constitutes ethical training.

    There are people who are excitable by nature and allow themselves to become angry for the most trivial of reasons. Judo can help such people learn to control themselves. Through training, they quickly realize that anger is a waste of energy, that it has only negative effects on the self and others.

    Training in judo is also extremely beneficial to those who lack confidence in themselves due to past failures. Judo teaches us to look for the best possible course of action, whatever the individual circumstances, and helps us to understand that worry is a waste of energy. Paradoxically, the man who has failed and one who is at the peak of success are in exactly the same position. Each must decide what he will do next, choose the course that will lead him to the future. The teachings of judo give each the same potential for success, in the former instance guiding a man out of lethargy and disappointment to a state of vigorous activity.

    One more type who can benefit from the practice of judo are the chronically discontented, who readily blame others for what is really their own fault. These people come to realize that their negative frame of mind runs counter to the principle of maximum efficiency and that living in conformity with the principle is the key to a forward-looking mental state.


    Practicing judo brings many pleasures: the pleasant feeling exercise imparts to muscles and nerves, the satisfaction of mastering movements, and the joy of winning in competition. Not the least of these is the beauty and delight of performing graceful, meaningful techniques and in seeing others perform them. This is the essence of the aesthetic side of judo.


    Contests in judo have as their rationale the idea that the lessons taught in matches will find application not only in future training but in the world at large. Here I would like to point out five basic principles and show briefly how they operate in the social realm.

    First is the maxim which says that one should pay close attention to the relationship between self and other. To take an example, before making an attack, one should note his opponent's weight, build, strong points, temperament and so on. He should be nonetheless aware of his own strengths and weaknesses, and his eye should critically assess his surroundings. In the days when matches were held outdoors, he would inspect the area for such things as rocks, ditches, walls and the like. In the dojo, he takes note of walls, people or other potential obstructions. If a person has carefully observed everything, then the correct means of defeating an opponent will naturally become apparent.

    The second point has to do with taking the lead. Players of board games like chess and go are familiar with the strategy of making a move that will entice the other player to move in a certain way. This concept is clearly applicable to both judo and our daily lives.

    Stated succinctly, the third point is: Consider fully, act decisively. The first phrase is closely related to the first point above, that is, a man should meticulously evaluate his adversary before executing a technique. This done, the advice given in the second phrase is followed automatically. To act decisively means to do so without hesitation and without second thoughts.

    Having shown how to proceed, I would now like to advise you when to stop. This can be stated quite simply. When a predetermined point has been reached, it is time to cease applying the technique, or whatever.

    The fifth and final point evokes the very essence of judo. It is contained in the saying: Walk a single path, becoming neither cocky with victory nor broken with defeat, without forgetting caution when all is quiet or becoming frightened when danger threatens. Implicit here is the admonition that if we let ourselves be carried away by success, defeat will inevitably follow victory. It also means that one should always be prepared for a contest-even the moment after scoring a victory. Whether a person's surroundings are calm or turbulent, he should always exploit whatever means are at hand to accomplish his purpose.

    The student of judo should bear these five principles in mind. Applied in the work place, the school, the political world or any other area of society, he will find that the benefits are great.

    To sum up, judo is a mental and physical discipline whose lessons are readily applicable to the management of our daily affairs. The fundamental principle of judo, one that governs all the techniques of attack and defense, is that whatever the objective, it is best attained by the maximum-efficient use of mind and body for that purpose. The same principle applied to our everyday activities leads to the highest and most rational life.

    Training in the techniques of judo is not the only way to grasp this universal principle, but it is how I arrived at an understanding of it, and it is the means by which I attempt to enlighten others.

    The principle of maximum efficiency, whether applied to the art of attack and defense or to refining and perfecting daily life, demands above all that there be order and harmony among people. This can be realized only through mutual aid and concession. The result is mutual welfare and benefit. The final aim of judo practice is to inculcate respect for the principles of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit. Through judo, persons individually and collectively attain their highest spiritual state while at the same time developing their bodies and learning the art of attack and defense.


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    quotes from wikipedia

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 28, 2014 3:18 am


    Kodokan Judo : The Essential Guide to Judo by Its Fouder Jigoro Kano (1986 translation, page numbers from 1994 edition); some quotes also in "Principles and Aims of Kodokan Judo" at yoshinjujitsu.com

    In randori, one must search out the opponent's weaknesses and be ready to attack with all the resources at his disposal the moment the opportunity presents itself, without violating the rules of judo.
    p. 22
    In randori we learn to employ the principle of maximum efficiency even when we could easily overpower an opponent. Indeed, it is much more impressive to beat an opponent with proper technique than with brute force. This lesson is equally applicable in daily life: the student realized persuasion backed up by sound logic is ultimately more effective than coercion.
    p. 23
    Another tenet of randori is to apply just the right amount of force — never too much, never too little. All of us know of people who have failed to accomplish what they set out to do because of not properly gauging the amount of effort required. At one extreme, they fall short of the mark; at the other, they do not know when to stop.
    p. 23
    There are people who are excitable by nature and allow themselves to become angry for the most trivial of reasons. Judo can help such people learn to control themselves. Through training, they quickly realize that anger is a waste of energy, that it has only negative effects on the self and others.
    p. 23
    Judo teaches us to look for the best possible course of action, whatever the individual circumstances, and helps us to understand that worry is a waste of energy. Paradoxically, the man who has failed and one who is at the peak of success are in exactly the same position. Each must decide what he will do next, choose the course that will lead him to the future. The teachings of judo give each the same potential for success, in the former instance guiding a man out of lethargy and disappointment to a state of vigorous activity.
    p. 23
    One more type who can benefit from the practice of judo are the chronically discontented, who readily blame others for what is really their own fault. These people come to realize that their negative frame of mind runs counter to the principle of maximum efficiency and that living in conformity with the principle is the key to a forward-looking mental state.
    p. 24
    Walk a single path, becoming neither cocky with victory nor broken with defeat, without forgetting caution when all is quiet or becoming frightened when danger threatens.
    p. 25
    Before and after practicing Judo or engaging in a match, opponents bow to each other. Bowing is an expression of gratitude and respect. In effect, you are thanking your opponent for giving you the opportunity to improve your technique.
    P. 31


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    quotes from wikipedia

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 28, 2014 3:21 am


    Budokwai Bulletin (1947)
    I do not feel inclined to take any initiative. For one thing, Judo in reality is not a mere sport or game. I regard it as a principle of life, art and science. In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment.
    Jigoro Kano, as quoted by Gunji Koizumi in the Budokwai Bulletin (April 1947)

    I have been asked by people of various sections as to the wisdom and possibility of Judo being introduced with other games and sports at the Olympic Games. My view on the matter, at present, is rather passive. If it be the desire of other member countries, I have no objection. But I do not feel inclined to take any initiative. For one thing, Judo in reality is not a mere sport or game. I regard it as a principle of life, art and science. In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment. Only one of the forms of Judo training, so-called randori or free practice can be classed as a form of sport. Certainly, to some extent, the same may be said of boxing and fencing, but today they are practiced and conducted as sports. Then the Olympic Games are so strongly flavored with nationalism that it is possible to be influenced by it and to develop "Contest Judo", a retrograde form as ju-jitsu was before the Kodokan was founded.
    Judo should be free as art and science from any external influences, political, national, racial, and financial or any other organized interest. And all things connected with it should be directed to its ultimate object, the "Benefit of Humanity". Human sacrifice is a matter of ancient history.

    Another point is the meaning of professionalism. With Judo, we have no professionals in the same sense as other sports. No one is allowed to take part in public entertainment for personal gain. Teachers certainly receive remuneration for their services, but that is in no way degrading. The professional is held in high regard like the officers of a religious organization or a professor in the educational world. Judo itself is held by us all in a position at the high altar. To reconcile this point of view with the Western idea is difficult. Success or a satisfactory result of joining the Olympic Games would much depend on the degree of understanding of Judo by the other participating countries.

    Kodokan Magazine (1974)
    Statements of Jigoro Kano (circa 1934), quoted in "Mission of Kodokan Judo", by D. Risei Kano, in Kodokan Magazine (February 1974)

    Recently in our country, there has been a steadily increasing number of people who dislike work and pursue leisure and extravagance. Almost everywhere individuals and organizations are fighting with resultant loss of energy that is needed for positive action. In order to save them from this situation, a principle of judo, based on the maximum efficiency concept should be applied as one aspect of modern society and as a natural result of the application of the principle of maximum efficiency, a mutual welfare and prosperity is believed to be the only effective way to ease and neutralize the forces among these individuals and organizations.
    Also quoted in "Hints For Judo" by D. Risei Kano, at usadojo.com

    In our society today, when we teach the righteous way of life based upon the Theory of judo which embodies the principles of continuous improvement of society, then this righteous life provides a basis of definite proof of this principle and unifies the peoples' way of thinking. Various religious and learned points of view are then made abundantly clear.


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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Sun Dec 28, 2014 7:00 am

    Jigoro Kano's quotation: "It's not important to be better than someone else, but to be better than yesterday"


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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by NBK on Sun Jan 04, 2015 4:05 pm

    Reinberger wrote:Hi Anatol (if I may say so, as it would sound odd to me, to call you "Mr. Anatol" unless it's your surname. Please call me Robert, as well),

    now you have me at a loss, exactly with a question, I regard as crucial for the matter in hand. I'm no Jūdō or Budō historian as well, other than an amateur, that is.

    I think there's no doubt, that Kanō had an education, that included those Chinese cultural influences you talked about. However, that doesn't  seem to explain how they were  absorbed by him, in his culture. Reading the same texts, doesn't always lead to the same conclusions, interpretations, or applications. The world was - and still is - full of examples of very different interpretations of the same religions, philosophies, ideologies, ... . Look at the various comprehensions and applications of 'socialism', for example. Or look at religions. In Christianity, there are even sects, that provide their own translations of the Bible, to better meet their special criteria, not to mention Islam, that seems to gave/give room for very high cultural achievements and unbelievable primitive barbarism as well.

    Regarding China and Japan, one aspect, that seems to be tangent to a "martial art", are the different esteem, that "warriors" were held in, in the two different cultures. In that regard, obviously, Japan developed a significantly different society, irrespective of  the Chinese cultural influences.

    Now Lance, especially regarding Confucianism (or Neo Confucianism alias Song Confucianism, as you say), indicates

    "... so much modification of it to fit into Japanese thought, and vice versus, so that in the end it became something new, and unique to Japan.",

    while you declare

    "... the concepts and teachings of Confucianism and Zen Buddhism didn't really change a lot from their origins."

    I, for sure, can't say. But I would regard it rather typical, if Japan would've made something very unique out of it, as it happened with so many things in so many respects.

    Nevertheless, Anatol, I appreciate the insights you give into Chinese religions/philosophies. I think I've already learned a thing or two, during our conversation here.

    I think you will enjoy reading this very much:

    Professor Morishima was a economist, mathematician and econometrician who wrote this history of Japan to attempt to explain why Japan succeeded in building a modern nation in a very short time. He claims not to have the credentials to explain Japanese history, but produced this remarkable book from a series of lectures. In doing so he addresses at length the differences between Chinese and Japanese Confucianism.

    I really wish I had read this when I first started studying Japan; it would have saved me a lot of head scratching and puzzlement.



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    some quotes from Jigoro Kano

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:32 am

    Here are some quotes from Jigoro Kano:
    Source: http://judoinfo.com/quotes2.htm

    Walk a single path, becoming neither cocky with victory nor broken with defeat, without forgetting caution when all is quiet or becoming frightened when danger threatens.
    Jigoro Kano

    Consider fully, act decisively.
    Jigoro Kano

    Another tenet of randori is to apply just the right amount of force--never too much, never too little.
    Jigoro Kano

    Source: http://judoinfo.com/quotes.htm
    Before and after practicing Judo or engaging in a match, opponents bow to each other. Bowing is an expression of gratitude and respect. In effect, you are thanking your opponent for giving you the opportunity to improve your technique.
    Jigoro Kano

    Source: http://judoinfo.com/quotes1.htm

    I thought all the time
    I was learning how to win;
    But I realize now:
    To win is no more,
    No less, than to lose.
    Judo is the way to the most effective use of both physical and spiritual strength. By training you in attacks and defenses it refines your body and your soul and helps you make the spiritual essence of Judo a part of your very being. In this way you are able to perfect yourself and contribute something of value to the world. This is the final goal of Judo discipline.

    Jigoro Kano

    In Randori we teach the pupil to act on the fundamental principles of Judo, no matter how physically inferior his opponent may seem to him, and even if by sheer strength he can easily overcome him; because if he acts contrary to principle his opponent will never be convinced of defeat, no matter what brute strength he may have used.
    Jigoro Kano

    A gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected without trials.
    Knife sharpens on stone, man sharpens on man.
    If there is effort, there is always accomplishment.

    Jigoro Kano

    Last edited by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 8:03 am; edited 2 times in total


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    "Studies on Jigoro Kano, Significance of His Ideals of Physical Education and Judo"

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:34 am

    From http://judoinfo.com/quotes3.htm

    According to Kano, the word judo had two connotations. One is judo in the wide sense and the other one is judo in the narrow sense. Judo in the narrow sense connotes that form which has evolved from the ancient military art of jujutsu. Kano stated : "Although Kodokan judo begins with the randori and the kata, unlike jujutsu, it is based on the principles of physical education and lays stress on the harmonious development of body muscles. The principle described as the way to use body and mind most efficiently is indeed the great principle of humanity. It is a moral doctrine." In other words it is judo in the wide sense.
    Jita kyoei
    Kano's ideals of judo and education consisted in "perfecting one's self and benefiting the world. He wrote : "In order to perfect myself, I do not for a moment forget to be of service to the world[..] I will dedicate my future activities to the service of society and for this purpose I shall strive to build up my character and form a firm foundation for my life.
    Seiryoku zenyo
    The second principle of Kano's philosophy of education was "the utmost use of one's energy or, in short, the maximum of efficiency. What Kano called energy did not simply imply physiological energy or physical vigor, it connoted the "living force" including both the spiritual and physical aspects of life.

    M. Maekawa, Y. Hasegawa, "Studies on Jigoro Kano, Significance of His Ideals of Physical Education and Judo", Bulletin of the Association for the Scientific Studies of Judo, Kodokan, 1963.


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    Re: Kanos examples of Seiryoku Zenyo or Jita Kyoei for everyday life

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:39 am

    From http://judoinfo.com/quotes3.htm

    Recently in our country, there has been a steadily increasing number of people who dislike work and pursue leisure and extravagance. Almost everywhere individuals and organizations are fighting with resultant loss of energy that is needed for positive action. In order to save them from this situation, a principle of judo, based on the maximum efficiency concept should be applied as one aspect of modern society and as a natural result of the application of the principle of maximum efficiency, a mutual welfare and prosperity is believed to be the only effective way to ease and neutralize the forces among these individuals and organizations.
    Jigoro Kano, quoted in Kodokan Magazine, February 1974 from his writings of 40 years earlier

    Last edited by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:51 am; edited 1 time in total


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    text from Ryozo Nakamura, director of the IJF Education Commission

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:40 am

    Text from http://judoinfo.com/quotes3.htm

    Although I became 8th dan, I am still going on with my practice and study of judo because I don't regard judo practice and study as just competition and a matter of winning and losing.
    Of course I tried my best to win during competitive meetings in my youth. I also spent lots of time with my students and younger colleagues in order to get results in competitions as a coach after I stopped competing. But I always believe that the final aim of judo practice and study is to form the best human beings for society.
    Originally ju came from the principle of yawara or suppleness which means the way to control the opponent by using his power, without resisting his power. At first, Dr. Jigoro Kano used this principle to explain judo, but then he understood that this principle was not sufficient.
    He concluded that we could develop our mental and physical fitness through judo practice and study, and experience the essence of judo. Furthermore, our final aim of judo practice and study is to make ourselves perfect and work for the benefit of society.
    To achieve these aims, three different ways of practice, borrowed from former times, should be taken into consideration. It explains that practice must be changed according to the proficiency of the opponent while keeping in mind the purpose and aim.
    Namely, the type of opponents can be divided into three:
    1. Practicing with opponents of a higher standard
    You should try your own techniques with full strength for improvement of skill, and should not consider defense. Defense towards the opponent should be with only tai sabaki or body management, but you should not mind being thrown if the skill of the opponent exceeds your defense.
    2. Practicing with opponents of an equal standard
    You should try your own skill and strength as much as you can.
    3. Practicing with opponents of a lower standard
    You should bear in mind the principle of techniques and try to throw the opponent with reasonable and suitable techniques. You should also give the opponent enough opportunities to try techniques so that the opponent can improve as well.
    Moreover, when you practice with a teacher, you should be careful to learn the principles of techniques without excessive defense and do this relentlessly because you are learning for your own improvement.
    When you practice with children, you should be careful to give them the chance to use the techniques they know and accept being thrown if the technique is applied with proper timing so that children can improve their skills in the future.
    I hope that judo will flourish around the world, so as many people as possible can partake and benefit from this wonderful sport and way of life.

    Ryozo Nakamura, director of the IJF Education Commission


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    Jigoro Kano about Mifunes application of Efficient use of energy

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 7:46 am

    From http://judoinfo.com/quotes4.htm

    Jigoro Kano in a 1936 conversation with Gunji Koizumi (Budokwai Bulletin, April 1947)

    Once when Kyuzo Mifune visited a karate dojo, he was shown a demonstration of tile-breaking by one of the karate men. After the karate man had smashed a number of tiles piled on top of each other, he asked Mifune, "Can a Judo man do this?"
    "Yes, it is very easy," Mifune replied.
    "Is that so? Can we see what kind of technique a Judo man uses?" the karate man challenged.
    "Of course. Please set up the tiles. I'll be back in a minute," Mifune instructed.
    Mifune returned with a hammer he had brought along in his bag.
    "You are not going to use that to break the tiles, are you?" the karate man protested.
    "Yes. I told you it was easy. Efficient use of energy is a key principle of Judo."


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    "It is not important to be better than someone else but to be better than yesterday."

    Post by noboru on Wed Jan 14, 2015 8:45 am

    Lot of internet sources contain this quote as quote of Jigoro Kano:

    "It is not important to be better than someone else but to be better than yesterday."
    -Jigoro Kano

    Last edited by noboru on Sat Jan 24, 2015 9:45 am; edited 1 time in total


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    Seiryoku Zen’yô and Jita Kyôei in randori practice

    Post by noboru on Sat Jan 24, 2015 9:44 am

    I found nice example of way of meaning of practicing randori in the nice article 2 months of training at the Kodokan (part The Judo) from website http://www.newtolife.net/2-months-of-training-at-the-kodokan.html

    The Judo

    The main property of the Kodokan Judo (At least by what I have seen) is the emphasis on accurate technique. It is less about power and speed. (Although the seeker of power and speed will find them on the Kodokan, too).

    Another thing to know about the Kodokan Judo is that it has different rules compared to the european and international competitions. For example - You may grab the legs of you opponent. This is not legal according to the international rules, however at the Kodokan you will see judokas grabbing the legs.

    At the main dojo (Randori session) you may invite other judokas to uchikomi or randori (Also ne-waza fights are possible). The amount of judokas on the main dojo varies from day to day. There could be very crowded days from time to time. (Wednesday is the university teams day, and it is a very crowded day). Generally speaking, you find at least 50 people on the mat, from which you can do randori with at least 10.

    randori with another judoka is not bounded in time, and can last as long as you want (or can). Some randori sessions last even more than 20 or 30 minutes.

    About the use of power - Many Judokas that show up at the Kodokan for the first time are very excited to fight, and they use lots of power. I admit that it happened to me to. On my first week at the Kodokan, I participated in many randori sessions and used as much power as possible. In the beginning, I couldn't understand why other judokas on the mat use so little power. I thought they go easy on me. It took me about one week to get a better understanding of how it works. Let me try to explain it here.

    There are a few reasons not to exagerate in the use of power in your fights. The first one is that excessive use of power might cause injuries. (Both as a sudden trauma, or from continuos use of your muscles). In the end of my first week at the Kodokan, it was hard for me to lift my hands to open doors at the building because of the excessive training and use of power.

    The second reason to use less power, is that the power might mask the technique. Use of power will work against an opponent of the same weight, but it will not work against heavier opponents. In the case of heavier opponents, you will have to rely on your technique. If your main strategy in fight is relying on your power, you will not be able to win fights against heavier opponents.

    Regarding the importance of winning - At my home dojo, people are very eager to win, and therefore they do everything to avoid falling on their backs. It is not the same in the Kodokan. As a general rule at the Kodokan, if your opponent demonstrate perfect technique, you will not try to resist the throw. You will just fall. It was hard for me to adjust to this idea in the beginning. It took me a few weeks to be able to fall down for a good technique, and not try to resist using power.

    In my opinion there is much behind this idea of letting go when your opponent throws correctly. It allows you to avoid many injuries, and it also helps your opponent to get the feeling of throwing and getting an ippon. If your opponent is less experienced, it will help him gain experience.

    You can get much help and advice from experienced judokas on the mat. There is nothing really formal about it, you just have to spot them and ask them. One way to do it is ask for randori, and then in the end of the randori session you will be able to ask them questions about one technique or another.

    Different judokas on the mat specialize in different techniques. Many judokas at the Kodokan are very good with the legs. They have great Uchi Mata and other similar leg techniques. It seems that even the beginners at the beginners class perform very good Uchi Mata. At the same time, you will find judokas the specialize in other techniques, like Seoi Nage and more.

    Some more senior judokas specialize in Ne-Waza techniques. This might be because at their age it is harder to participate in standing randori. If you want to learn some Ne-Waza, a good idea would be to spot one of the senior judokas sitting on the mat and ask him for a Ne-Waza fight.

    If you are looking for a tough fight, every week, at least for one day (Usually Wednesday), the university teams show up at the Kodokan. The university students are usually young (But experienced) judokas, usually 18-21 in age, and they are very strong. You are allowed to ask them for a fight. If you talk to the right people, you might be able to practice at one of the university dojos. I heard that it is a great experience.


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    嘉納治五郎師範のことば Kanō Jigorō shihan no kotoba - Words of master instructor Jigorō Kanō (from japanese Kōdōkan website)

    Post by noboru on Sat Feb 07, 2015 1:23 am

    The text about Seiryoku zen'yō and Jita kyōei for people who can read japanese (from japanese version of Kodokan webpage).

    嘉納治五郎師範のことば  Kanō Jigorō shihan no kotoba  - Words of master instructor Jigorō Kanō

    精力善用とは - “Seiryoku zen'yō to wa” - "Good use of energy"
    自他共栄とは - “Jita kyōei to wa”  -  "Prosperity for oneself and others"

    I'm sorry I am not able post english translation of these texts.

    Words of master instructor Jigorō Kanō - “Seiryoku zen'yō to wa” - "Good use of energy"



     この精力の最善活用ということは、柔道の修行上最も大切な教えであるが、また人生各般の目的を達するためにも必要な教えである」 *1






    *1 嘉納治五郎、精力の最善活用、大勢第1巻第1号、1922
    *2 同上、柔術と柔道の区別を明確に認識せよ、柔道第7巻第2号、1936

    〔  〕内に語句説明を補った


    Words of master instructor Jigorō Kanō  -  “Jita kyōei to wa” -  "Prosperity for oneself and others"
    Source: http://www.kodokan.org/doctrine/word/jita-kyoei/index.html


     早い話が、ここに三人旅する場合に、一人は山といい、一人は海を好み、一人は休息していたいといい張ったら、三人がわかれわかれにならなければならぬ。共に連れだって旅する益を始めから望んだものとすれば、互いに譲りあって、比較的皆が満足し得る一致点を択んで行くよりほかしかたがない。およそ人の世、細大多少すべての関係はこの通りである。(略) 他を認めず自らの言分ばかりで争うならば、自他共倒れとなって、社会全体の不利・害禍これより大なるはない。(略)

    *1  嘉納治五郎「なにゆえに精力最善活用・自他共栄の主張を必要とするか」『作興』第4巻第12号(大正14年)


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    Heita Okabe severely criticized Kano’s concept of judo

    Post by noboru on Thu Feb 19, 2015 5:49 am

    In fact, Heita Okabe [3], one of the most prominent
    of Kano’s students in the early half of the Taisho-era
    (1912–1929), severely criticized Kano’s concept of judo
    as follows: There are many ways to apply “The principle
    of maximum efficiency with minimum effort” in our life. All
    worthwhile matters would probably be produced by the working
    of “The principle of maximum efficiency with minimum effort”
    so this definition is not logical because it has no originality.

    Source: A Judo that Incorporates Kendo: Jigoro Kano’s Ideas and Their Theoretical Development www.archbudo.com/fulltxt.php?ICID=1057769


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    Jigoro Kano words: What is "Seiryoku-Zenyo"? from new Kodokan website

    Post by noboru on Fri Feb 27, 2015 10:56 pm


    What is "Seiryoku-Zenyo"?
    "Seiryoku-Zenyo (maximum efficient use of energy) applies to all types of endeavours, and it is to fully utilise one's spiritual and physical energies to realise an intended purpose.
    Seiryoku-Zenyo is the most effective use of the power of the mind and body. In the case of Judo, this is the principle upon which attack and defence are based, and what guides the process of teaching as well. Simply, the most effective use of mind and body may be described as the maximum efficient utilisation of energy. In summary, this can be described as "maximum efficiency".
    This idea of the best use of energy is one of the central tenets in Judo, but it is also important for achieving various aims in one's life." *1
    "This concept of the best use of energy is the fundamental teaching of Judo. In other words, it is most effectively using one's energy for a good purpose. So, what is 'good'? Assisting in the continued development of one's community can be classified as good, but counteracting such advancement is bad... Ongoing advancement of community and society is achieved through the concepts of 'Sojo-Sojo' (help one another; yield to one another) or 'Jita-Kyoei' (mutual benefit). In this sense, Sojo-Sojo and Jita-Kyoei are also part of the greater good. This is the fundamental wisdom of Judo.
    Kata and Randori are possible when this fundamental wisdom is applied to techniques of attack and defence. If directed at improving the body, it becomes a form of physical education; if applied to gaining knowledge, it will become a method of self-improvement; and, if applied to many things in society such as the necessities of life, social interaction, one's duties, and administration, it becomes a way of life...
    In this way, Judo today is not simply the practice of fighting in a dojo, but rather it is appropriately recognised as a guiding principle in the myriad facets of human society. The practice of Kata and Randori in the dojo, is no more than the application of Judo principles to combat and physical training... From the study of traditional Jujutsu Kata and Randori, I came to the realisation of this greater meaning. Accordingly, the process of teaching also follows the same path. Furthermore, I recognised the value of teaching Kata and Randori to many people as a fighting art and as a form of physical training. This not only serves the aims of the individual, but by mastery of the fundamental wisdom of Judo, and in turn applying it to many pursuits in life, all people will be able to live their lives in a judicious manner.
    This is how one should undertake the study of Judo that I founded. However, in actuality there are many people throughout the world living their lives on the basis of Judo principles without knowing that this is the real essence of Judo. If the Judo that I espouse is propagated to society at large, the actions people undertake will become Judo without even thinking about it. I believe that if more people gain an understanding of the guiding principles of Judo, this philosophy will also help guide their lives. Thus, I implore you all to make great efforts, and initiate this trend in society." *2
    * 1 Kano Jigoro, "The Best Use of Energy", Taisei, Vol.1, No.1, 1922.
    * 2 Kano Jigoro, "Jujutsu and Judo, Recognising the Distinction of Judo", Judo, Vol.7, No.2, 1936.


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    Jigoro Kano words: What is "Jita-Kyoei"? from new Kodokan website

    Post by noboru on Fri Feb 27, 2015 10:57 pm


    What is "Jita-Kyoei"?
    As long as we coexist, each member of society and the groups organised within must function in harmony and cooperation with the others. Nothing is more important than living prosperously together. If everyone acts with the spirit of mutual cooperation, each person's work benefits not only himself, but also others, and attaining this together will bring mutual happiness. Activities should not engaged in simply for self-interest. Once started, it is only a matter of course that a person will find goodness in harmony and cooperation upon realising that his efforts will increase the prosperity of all. This great principle of harmony and cooperation is, in other words, the concept of Jita-Kyoei, or mutual prosperity for self and others.
    Where should one seek the rationale for acting for the sake of others? Further, if one acts out of concern for his own wellbeing, there will inevitably be a collision of interests with others. Acts for the sake of self-interest will ultimately become a great inconvenience. In this way, sacrificing oneself without any purpose or reasoning runs counter to the greater good of humanity. If one merely enforces his own selfish claims, not only will he become hindered by opposition from others, but such selfishness will lead to self-destruction. When considered in this light, there is no other way forward but Jita-Kyoei in which all people play their part in society to prosper mutually.
    For example, if three people join together in travel, one person may wish to go to the mountains, one to the sea, and one may want to stop and rest. The three eventually come to a point where they all wish to separate. Assuming that they wanted to enjoy the benefits of travelling together at the start, they must cooperate and accede to each other's wishes. In truth, there is no choice other than to select a common destination to satisfy everyone.
    Looking at the ways of the world, we find that all things great and small interrelate in this manner... If one acts in accordance with his own interests while refusing to recognise the needs of others, this will lead to mutual destruction, and nothing is more disadvantageous or calamitous to society than this...
    When we observe at the actual lives of people, it seems that there is a great deal of wasted energy. Even if it appears that people are utilising their energies effectively, it cannot be denied that there is still much room for improvement. We should cease meaningless conflict, and instead abide by the principle of Jita-Kyoei. If we proceed by maximising the efficient use of energy, this will result in the vitality of the country increasing dual-fold. Thus, culture will advance in leaps and bounds, and we will all be enriched and strengthened as a matter of course. Moreover, I believe that if we follow the ideal of Jita-Kyoei, international relations will become more amicable, and it will promote wellbeing for the entire human race.
    For this reason, I beseech you all to integrate and embrace all these teachings and proclamations, raise the flag of Seiryoku-Zenyo and Jita-Kyoei, notions that are based on the immovable principles of truth, and move forward together with all the people of the world.*1
    * Kano Jigoro, "Why it is necessary to advocate the principles of Seiryoku-Zenyo and Jita-Kyoei", Sakko Vol. 4, No. 12, 1925.


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    Reigi - Dignity of the Judoka from new Kodokan website

    Post by noboru on Fri Feb 27, 2015 11:00 pm


    By Kano Jigoro

    Reigi is a formal system of etiquette that externally represents one's heartfelt thoughts and respect for others. Such systems exist in every society, and provide the conventions for interaction so that relationships can proceed smoothly. Social order is thereby maintained, and society can function peacefully and amicably.
    Given this function, how should we approach Reigi? The primary intention of Reigi is to physically convey feelings such as respect, love, friendship, and so on. In cases where the pattern of etiquette is performed without sincerity, it simply becomes an empty formality rather than authentic courtesy. The value of such insincere formalities is negligible. Nevertheless, that is not to say that incorrect form is acceptable so long as feeling of sincerity underlies it. In the same fashion that outward form without sincerity is not good, protocols of Reigi that are not precise in delivery, even if done with a feeling of earnestness, are not suitable either...
    Courtesy exists in various forms within different relationships. One should show respect to superiors, but in a way that it is not seen as flattery. Regarding peers, it is easy to become overly familiar, so it is best to maintain a certain degree of formality. There is also a tendency to alienate one's juniors, so it is prudent to interact with them in a way to engender an anticipation of friendship...
    Closely related to the concept of Reigi is "posture" and "demeanour". These are integral to civility, and warrant comment. Posture and demeanour are external matters, and are not subject to so much scrutiny. If the man's spirit is admirable, then many would consider him to be beyond remonstrance. It may seem like quibbling, but careful reflection on this matter makes it abundantly clear that this notion is grossly mistaken.

    The relationship between mind and body is inseparable. The body affects the mind, and the body is also subject to the influences of the mind. It is akin to a shadow following the movements of the object that casts it. Thus, if the spirit is modest, peaceable and correct, this will manifest in one's physical carriage with a posture that demonstrates a certain presence of tranquil solemnity. If the body is unkempt and irregular, the mind will naturally follow to carelessness and self-indulgence. When pondered according to this reasoning, it becomes clear that a man's disposition can be ascertained by examining his posture and manner. The personalities of young men are recognisable by their posture and behaviour, so it behoves us to instil decorum from the start.
    Upon further inquiry, broadly speaking there are two important reasons for maintaining good posture: one relates to health and dignity, and the other concerns maintaining respect... Beauty in form is certainly preferable, but requires an overall balance between the head, the arms and legs, and torso... There can be no excess or deficiency as symmetry must be present for beauty in physical form. The ancient Greeks idealised this notion of beauty in the physical body. In order to obtain such symmetry, one must endeavour to hold correct posture at all times, and perform daily exercises to facilitate poise.
    Next, why is it important to have good posture when showing courtesy to others? For example, when meeting a gentleman of high social standing, if you were to slouch, put your hands in your pockets, or crook your head to the side, even though it may be habitual with no bad intent, it will be viewed as showing a complete lack of courtesy and respect. Such deportment will most likely be frowned upon by a dignified man of status. And so it goes, one will precipitate an unpleasant situation or rudeness, not just one time, but forever after. To have poor manners or etiquette in the company of those with seniority is redolent of questionable character, and the purpose of the interview will not be achieved. Such being the case, young people must take great care to carry themselves with a fine posture and proper deportment, and to continue developing a sense of decorum...
    With regards to one's demeanour, not only does this hold the same gravity as posture when interacting with others, it also exposes the quality of the person within... Considerate young men and women are fastidious in all aspects of their behaviour. Even if wearing Western-styles clothes, to refrain from sitting on the floor with crossed legs is indicative of an unselfish young man who shows esteem for the customs of etiquette of our country... Posture and demeanour soon becomes habitual, and one who incorporates excellence in both who will enjoy happiness. Conversely, one who develops bad habits will have to endure misery.
    Young men must be mindful of this at all times, reflect on their own deportment, and embrace the advice imparted by their seniors. They must nurture fineness in posture and demeanour, and make haste to expunge themselves of any flaw in attitude or behaviour that they may have adopted over time. It is far from inconsequential to exemplify an attitude that is solemn, and a bearing that is elegant. This is, after all, a stairway to succeed in life.
    From Seinen Shuyo-Kun (Youth Training Precepts)

    Dignity of the Judo Practitioner
    By Kano Jigoro

    What exactly is it that constitutes a man's dignity? There are various facets that make up a man's dignity, but in simple terms it may be said to be comprised of the five components of etiquette, lifestyle, civility, work ethic, and ideals.
    Etiquette denotes one's appearance and manners. Correct posture is requisite for good manners, but so is one's personal appearance and dress... People are apt to think that it requires considerable expense to acquire quality items to enhance their appearance, and that it is beyond their means. However, quality and extravagance are entirely different things. Irrespective of social class, all people should avoid wasteful extravagance. Those of meagre resources must keep their limitations in mind. Whatever your station is in life, it is important to be cognisant of what is respectable and what is not for somebody in your position.
    Bearing is also of consequence to the way a man's character is perceived. We admire a person who is deft at his work, who walks expeditiously down the road, who stands up and sits down unassumingly, and who opens and closes doors or removes items with composure... In short, manners should be abided by as conventions of society, and to avoid making trouble for others and incurring animosity. Judo training facilitates the cultivation of such qualities. Correct posture is emphasised in the practise of Kata and Randori, and all movements are executed expeditiously, and with composure. Practice always commences and finishes with a Rei, and the dojo is a venue in which manners are refined.
    Nevertheless, it cannot be said that all Judo practitioners are striving for such self-improvement. If the intention is to practise Judo solely as an athletic exercise without comprehending its spirit, such training will accordingly be left wanting in the important aspects of self-improvement. All Judo practitioners must give heed to training both the body and the mind. It is my hope that they will perfect their manners and etiquette concomitantly with technical improvement. When sitting in the formal upright position in the dojo, if one feels only discomfort thinking it necessary to endure simply because of dojo protocol, such a man will slink back into slovenliness upon returning home... Sitting properly in the dojo is not just a matter of protocol, but is the required posture for refining one's manners as a human being.
    The next theme concerns the way one lives his life. Soundness is of the essence... The most important point is to live a frugal lifestyle. If you increase your means, use it to engage only in things that will be of use. A student should use what he has available in strengthening his body and acquiring knowledge. The adult should use his resources to develop his business further, for looking after his progenies, for helping friends, or improving society and the state. Increasing the amount of money and resources spent for ameliorating one's outward appearance should be one's lowest priority. If you maintain this policy, you will have sufficient means without risking your reputation, and you will be able to uphold your dignity.
    If one possesses little wealth, it would be disgraceful to spend a large sum of money on living expenses. Choose to live in a small house and wear inexpensive clothes. Even when living so humbly, your manners and Rei need not ever be lacking, and you can hold your head high if you do not burden others. Thus, through maintaining a sound lifestyle, you can amplify your capabilities and will eventually be able lead a prosperous life.
    The next theme concerns the matter of sociability. This is also inextricably linked with a man's dignity. Language is the medium through which a man can present his ideas. Thus, the manner of one's speech is of great magnitude. Sometimes there are people who chatter thoughtlessly and incessantly without allowing the other to speak. Such a man is immediately despised by others, and it is most undignified. The act of criticising and abusing others is harmful, and benefits no one. Engaging in meaningless discourse ungrounded by any rationale, or using obscene words, makes one the object of contempt. Thus, one must be conscientious from the very first word uttered when conversing with others. Also, it is prudent to avoid a mismatch of words and deeds, selfishness, and being unconcerned with the welfare of others, for all of these foibles are damaging to one's dignity.
    Work Ethic
    The next theme concerns one's work ethic... Using one's position for personal benefit, and flattering superiors to receive special favours, will most certainly result in a blemish on one's dignity. A Judo teacher who has cultivated a strength that exceeds others, so long as this strength is not abused, will be viewed as a dignified man if he unfalteringly utilises it to uphold justice or to rectify an encroachment of his rights. On the contrary, a man's dignity will be severely harmed if he finds himself lured into an argument or fight, is deceived, is allured by profit or gain, or is manipulated as a tool in the machinations of politicians.
    Thus and so, aspects such as one's lifestyle, civility, and work ethic, are all matters that are addressed in the study of Judo; and as such, it serves as a legitimate vehicle for developing one's dignity. As the question of dignity is stressed in accordance with the traditions of bushido, through sustaining the virtues of simplicity and frugality, faithfulness and a sense of honour, as well as the ideal of using one's physical and mental power with maximum efficiency while holding others in esteem as one strives to achieve one's aims, Judo surely cultivates dignity in the individual in the process of striving for self-perfection.
    It must be said that without admonishment some may focus solely on technique, and forget the spirit of Judo. A Judo trainee must be vigilant and pay close attention lest he fall into bad habits, while also being ready to assist upon discovering shortcomings in others.
    Finally, allow me to make mention of dignity and its relationship to ideals. All human activities are premised on an ideal of some description. Irrespective of what that ideal may be, it is always a matter of great consequence. If the ideal is low, the resulting action will be of a low level; but if premised on a high ideal, then the action itself will also be lofty. In either case, one's dignity is effected by the level of the ideal. A man who seeks prestige will act in a way that is calculated to gain distinction. A man who pursues profit will behave in a way that is dictated by that objective. A man who desires power and influence will show deportment that reflects that aim. Any man controlled by such yearnings will be self-centred, and descend into the depths of vulgarity as a matter of course.
    It is desirable to embrace higher ideals that surpass prestige, profit and power, and to act accordingly. The ultimate goal of Judo is to seek self-perfection in order to make a contribution to society, not to satisfy one's own selfish desires. Hence, to grasp Judo's true meaning, and act correspondingly to its spirit is to comprehend that all action should be based on the noblest ideal. It is then that a man's dignity is heightened. In short, aspiring to learn only one aspect of Judo means that one may not be successful in fostering a higher degree of dignity. The true study of Judo naturally leads to the cultivation of dignity.
    Judo, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 1917


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    CKs post from discussion shoji-muneoka-interview-by-gotaro-ogawa

    Post by noboru on Mon Mar 09, 2015 2:20 am

    I re-found very interesting post from CK in other thread. But I think, the content of his post is very closer to theme of this discussion. It is reason for inserting it here. It is from discussion about theme Shoji Muneoka interview - by Gotaro Ogawa ( http://judo.forumsmotion.com/t1819p15-shoji-muneoka-interview-by-gotaro-ogawa )

    CK, thank you again for this your post.

    CK 9.7.2014 wrote:

    The aims of jūdō are well summarized by Kanō in his 1932 article: Kanō Jigorō: The contribution of jūdō to education. Journal of Health and Physical Education 3, 37: 40-58, 1932. (You can find this article here: http://judoinfo.com/Kano1.htm):

    ”The final aim of Jūdō, therefore, is to inculcate in the mind of man a spirit of respect for the principle of maximum efficiency and of mutual welfare and benefit, leading him so to practice them that man individually and collectively can attain to the highest state, and, at the same time, develop the body and learn the art of attack and defense. If we closely observe the actual state of society all over the world, notwithstanding the fact that morality in all its forms (religious, philosophical and traditional) is meant to improve man's conduct in society and make the world ideal, the fact seems quite the contrary. We notice vices, quarrels, and discontent in every level of society, from the highest to the lowest. While we are taught hygiene and correct ways of living in school from childhood up to mature age, we still are prone to neglect the rules of good clean living and of hygienic and orderly lives. The actual facts prove that our society is lacking in something which, if brought to light and universally acknowledged, can remodel the society and bring greater happiness and satisfaction to this world. This is the teaching of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit.” (…)

    Secondly, Kanō reacts against dogmas and emphasizes the importance of reasoning and ratio:

    ”I do not mean to say that our time honored moral precepts and hygienics should be shelved. On the contrary, let those precepts and advice be respected ever as they used to be, but in addition to these; our principle of maximum efficiency and mutual welfare and benefit should ever be paramount. This I emphatically say, because in this age of criticism and new ideas, for any teaching to have effect, it must have behind it, some indubitable reason of fact. We do not hear the thinking man today say, "Because I believe in such and such a thing, therefore you must believe in it, or, I came to such and such a conclusion through my own reasoning; therefore you also must come to the same conclusion." Whatever one affirms must be based on facts or reasoning which no sane person can deny or doubt.” (…)

    The first principle of jūdō ―the maximal efficiency problem― is the one that withstands challenge the best, if well understood. It is what we all attempt to achieve, especially in times of economic restraints. Would we intentionally pay more for an identical object if we can get it cheaper ? Would we intentionally desire a car that uses 30 liters per 100 km of driving if we can get the identical brand with similar luxury and performance data that uses only 6 liters per 100 km ? The principle of maximal efficiency therefore is pervasive in our society. Even in things such as medicine. Would I give you 9 different drugs if I know you could get the same health effects by a single drug of which you have to take less ?

    There is really nothing new about this principle. Kanō was not the kind of creative genius who created entirely new concepts from scratch. He was a mere compiler who used fruits of original thought of others. The principle had long before been established by mathematicians such as Euler and Leibniz.

    As much as there isn't a problem "in se" with this first principle there is a problem in teaching and acquiring it to its fullest. There are two reasons for that. The first reason is that there are errors in Kanō's own understanding of Newtonian mechanics, and secondly there are problems in transferring jūdō skills or teaching. In Kanō's approach, jūdō should be taught according to 4 ways of teaching delivery: randori, kata, kōgi or lectures, and mondō or discussion. Jūdō, however, has never been taught like this in the West and isn't anymore today in Japan either. This is because people in the West never even knew or understood that this is the way jūdō was supposed to be taught. The first Japanese teachers in the West had poor language skills, so the way they were able to market jūdō was by demonstrating their fighting skills and defeating well-known wrestlers in popular catch-as-catch-can contests. Hence jūdō was taught in a single way: randori/shiai. The aspect of kata came into the picture much later when Westerners reached the level of black belts and this part was introduced as an essential aspect of black belt exams. Hence the stage had been said for the awkward position which kata would assume in the learning trajectory and views of many Westerners People did not generally understand the importance of kata which was perceived as something annoying and totally separate from randori/shiai.

    When Kanō himself still taught jūdō in Japan, he taught these 4 different aspects which he felt essential. When I discussed with Fukuda Keiko her relationship to Kanō and in how far she had ever actually been taught jūdō by him, it was obviously that the uniqueness of her experience was in the conversations she had with Kanō, the mondō aspect. So even though she was not taught practical jūdō by Kanō, the mondō allowed a kind of mentorship that sufficed to establish her deep commitment to jūdō as conceived by Kanō. Especially Fukuda-sensei’s first book “Born for the mat” still reflects jūdō in its original form. However, the average jūdō instructor either in Japan or in the West by far does not have enough knowledge and depth of knowledge of that what Kanō himself knew to effectively deliver the component of mondō and kōgi.

    When you see pictures of Kanō and the Kōdōkan, you sometimes see him simply in formal Montsuki Haori delivering lectures before a large group of jūdōka who have assembled in the dōjō listening to his teachings. Which jūdō dōjō does this today ? Lectures, until a couple of years ago were held as the starting point of the Kōdōkan International Summer Kata course, but they were abolished after the Kōdōkan a couple of years ago did a poll and distributed forms among those who attended asking the jūdōka for feedback about the course. The foreigners complained so much about the lectures, that it was abolished. What they (the Kōdōkan) did not realize was that it was not the lectures themselves that were the problem but how they were delivered. For years these had been delivered by people who simply lacked proper teaching and lecturing skills. They were held in Japanese only with sometimes a crippled part translation by another Japanese whose English was so poor that it was even harder to understand than the Japanese. Moreover, Westerners not used to attending lectures like this, were forced to spend 2 hours in seated, painful positions on the tatami not moving. If one uses his brain, one would know that the legs and joints of Westerners have not been trained from childhood to remain in seiza or even anza for 2 hours; moreover, many people are elderly with health impairments such as diabetes, cardiovascular problems, hernias, and most jūdōka with a competitive career who are 65 years of older have knee problems or back problems. In other words, you have to be pretty moronic to organize lectures in such a way. The lectures oftentimes were that bad --even in the rare cases that the content was interesting-- that I politely proposed to the Kōdōkan that I would hold the next year's lecture myself. I could do it simultaneously in English, Japanese and even French if necessary, and I could take questions and answer them in 7 languages. When teaching at university and having gone through tenure a couple of times one has been submitted to numerous teaching evaluations both by peers and students, and has followed numerous teaching workshops. Teaching itself then becomes an area of research and specialization. The lecturing quality of those who delivered lectures at the Kōdōkan was typically worse than that of the weakest of my sophomore students. Since I am trained in multiple areas all of the lectures at the Kōdōkan I had heard in the past fell within my working area. Of course my proposal ignored the simple postcolonial attitude of the Japanese that only another ethnic Japanese would be allowed to lecture or teach at the Kōdōkan; I do not make this up. I did inquire about the requirements to become a Kōdōkan instructor and considerable consternation arose when I pursued if they could please elaborate on relevance of skin color, ethnicity and facial features to one's efficiency as a jūdōka and instructor ... As I recall it, in the past there was only one time that translations at the Kōdōkan were completely intelligible and to the point and that was when our friend NBK was doing the translations. Regrettably, he did not get the full recognition for his skill and help either, and God forbid the idea of him or any other non-Japanese being invited to line up with the other Kōdōkan instructors. In the light of these colonial attitudes which the Japanese still actively practice (do I have to remind that newspapers today still contain many job advertisements that make it clear only people belonging to one race are desired for the job, which is quite stunning coming from democratic country in the 21st century; and these jobs are not limited to sensitive positions of national security). Given that equal rights and nondiscrimination are still hard to find, jūdō's second principle of mutual welfare and benefit becomes particularly cynical. Who exactly is this Japanese-style mutual welfare aimed at when discrimination based on gender, nationality and ethnicity is pervasive in the organizations who are the guardians of Kanō's thoughts ?

    It is perhaps an unexpected angle that highlights the severe weaknesses of this principle since at the same time it highlights that it is possible to become very senior in jūdō, even 8th, 9th, or 10th dan and be a total racist, or someone insensitive to human suffering or equality. This is seriously problematic.

    In his article, Kanō continues: "none can deny that it is only by aiming at mutual welfare and benefit that every member of society can keep from discord and quarrelling, and live in peace and prosperity. Is it not because of the universal recognition of these facts that people have come to talk so much about efficiency and scientific management and that everywhere these are being advocated? In addition to this, the principle of give-and-take is more and more coming to be the determining factor in the lives of all human beings. Is it not because this principle of mutual welfare and benefit has been recognized that from the League of Nations and the Great Powers of the World we came to meet for the decrease of naval and military armaments? These movements are also automatic acknowledgment of the crying need of efficient and mutual welfare and benefit. The educational forces of every country in which Jūdō should have a prominent part must further them." (...)

    "the decrease of naval and military armaments?"

    Luckily for him, Kanō bowed out before the atrocities of the Nazis took full shape, he never experienced Vietnam, the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia/Serbia, the Cold War, or the whole Israel/Palestinian conflict, the IRA, the ETA, and the concept of terrorism.

    Throughout his life Kanō went through different phases, something everyone who does serious research in jūdō history quickly realizes. Kanō made some considerable revisions, and at the end of his life was well aware of some serious flaws in jūdō, the return to koryū being one of the possible solutions.

    After his death, jūdō became totally sportified and isn't really delivered any longer as an education although in superficial IJF and federation marketing tools you might still see references to moral values. Jūdō today is nothing but an Olympic sport just like so many others. Being the best, winning, scoring is what counts and to where all the support and sponsorship is going. Jūdō is not supported as education is, and neither the Kōdōkan nor other places where jūdō is taught are accredited institutions or learning. They are either non-profit organization, while others are run as commercial businesses. The IJF is involved with big money, media and TV rights. This is not the kind of thing that an institution of education would be involved with.

    So, the second and highest principle of jūdō is the most utopian. Although a discussion was recently held about Kanō and religion, generally suggesting that Kanō was anti-religious, this expression may be too strong. Kanō was not in favor of the vices that religion can bring such as power and dogmas, but that does not mean that someone is anti-religious per se. Much of the moral code and ideals in jūdō is rooted in religion. In some sense one can argue in how far things such as Confucianism are a religion or merely a moral code. Irrespective of that, most of the highest skills of jūdō's and values of jūdō are of Zen-Buddhist and Taoist origin, and the highest principle of mutual benefit clearly is not free of Buddhist influences. At least in Buddhism as a religion, extensive teachings are provided as how to reach these highest goals, but jūdō has no clear strategy for it, and simple long-time practice fails to do so.

    Even for its other principle, everyone is in awe of seeing Mifune move on the tatami. No doubt he is a prime example of jūdō performed as practical and physical discipline according to the principle of maximal efficiency. The question, however, is how YOU are going to arrive at that level, or how YOU are going to teach someone else to reach that level ? Who among the readers here has reached that level ? Who among the readers here has taught someone else to reach that level ? Most of us will miserably fail at both, which illustrates the difficulty and the lack of practical tools to make this goal very realistic.

    The whole situation is even more problematic for the second goal. For the first goal we can still emphasize and train ourselves like crazy in kuzushi, tsukuri, debana, and we have some training forms that may help, such as kata, kihon, uchi-komi. However, for the second goal there is nothing, other than attempting to understand that the principle of jū needs to be brought to a supra-physical level, a moral level. Even so, if you succeed in doing that, the question is if you now have realized mutual benefit.

    Imagine I sleep with your wife, and you get very angry and want to kill me, and I having fully understood the principle of jū do not shout back to you, remain very calm, understanding, and succeed in you dropping your weapon, have I really achieved mutual benefit then ? Sure, a murder has been avoided, but the consequences of my act are still not gone. I still may have destroyed a marriage, caused hardship for a family and its children, etc. You don't prevent children dying in Africa from famine and dehydration simply by applying jū ? Where is the mutual benefit ? If I have to pay a bill and I can't, jū is not going to help me, and me telling the tax agency that they need to think in terms of mutual benefit isn't going to help my cause either. As I said, the second principle is naive and utopian. That doesn't mean it does not sound beautiful. It sounds even marvelous, and it would be great if it would be realistic, but it isn't.

    Such problems are not unique to jūdō and we see them often in religion too. What could be a more beautiful picture when a loved one dies and we say they have gone to heaven and their souls are reunited with other loved once, they now "rest in peace". In reality this is of course complete bullshit. All living things die, they putrefy, and dying itself can be process that is preceded by sheer agony. A person who is dead does not rest in peace, he is dead, his consciousness and vital functions have irrevocably ceased. There is no soul, and they do not join other people who previously died. Heaven, etc, are merely concepts that were invented to deal with some of the most agonizing events many of us have to deal with in our lives. The mere idea of realizing that your loved one is gone for ever and is nothing but a lifeless putrefying object doesn't help our suffering hence the fairytale of heaven.

    Neither religion nor parts of jūdō withstand the challenge of ratio and science very well. Does it make religion or jūdō completely useless ? Of course not. They allow as a model to enforce good things in our students, and they allow a theoretical imaging of the possible consequences and painful things we all may face. But ultimately it is really the teacher rather than the course he teaches that can install values in our students.

    You wondered what my target in teaching jūdō was and What you I can give/teach my students? My target isn't different from Kanō's, but I prefer to word it in a way that I think sounds less naive and perhaps can withstand the challenge of time better. Instead of saying I want to teach them "mutual benefit", I prefer saying I want to make them into responsible and caring citizens. However, I do not need jūdō for that. I teach the same in medicine. I make it very clear to my students that my duties do not end with helping to convey the factual material data of a course, but on how to apply this in a variety of circumstances, always from a humanistic perspective. I will never project to someone that things are going to be fantastic if you just do this and that. The challenges in life can be great and very different for everybody. When two people get married, everyone is all laughs and happiness, as if one pulls a bag over their head as if suddenly all is perfect and the definite solution of happiness is found. No wedding wishes from me will every buy into this, it's unrealistic. When I wish someone something it is a responsibility for me, that takes into account the challenges and realistic outcomes. In many cases in some future either distant or not very distant either one partner cheats on the other, and two people who supposedly love each other turn into each other's worst enemies where materialism and hurting each other become the goal.

    You wonder what my teaching goals are ? To be caring and responsible citizen in any circumstance whether on the tatami or in marriage or in business. As a task this goes beyond the tatami, just like it goes beyond the lecturing theater. When I teach at university, I spend much time with my students outside the lecturing theater: in my office, in a lab, in a field, and given the number of them who continue to seek my advice long after they have graduated, I must be doing something OK. The same in jūdō, but the task is harder than it used to be due to the loss of the core ideas of jūdō. As a teacher you are alone. What the IJF does, does not help you in the least achieve your goals and this is a problem. If religion is your thing ―and let's ignore the true abuses of religion for a second― at least your church is still there in theory sharing the same goals. The IJF doesn't share my goals; it has its own goals: commerce, and steering jūdōka to something that isn't and never was the core of jūdō: winning medals. But even the Kōdōkan whose task it is to be the guardian of jūdō, has so far strayed from Kanō ideals and teaching, that one can no longer find support in what they do either. Its painful approach to kata which has reduced this form to a travesty that has nothing to do anymore with its original goals, instructors who have no longer read or studied Kanō, who have no idea what it is about, no longer have the ability of preserving Kanō's jūdō, and its phobia to not involve knowledgeable non-Japanese, exacerbate the problem even more.

    I was in awe of those few personalities whose knowledge about jūdō far exceeded that of others, and in this way naturally I came across the writings of the late Trevor Pryce Leggett. It was clear that the man was very knowledgeable. In a time and era that most Westerners saw jūdō merely as a set of tricks, Leggett was talking about jūdō’s moral and educational aspects which he interspersed with personal anecdotes. The man set a standard for me and I devoured his writings. Though I never met the man himself, he still was inspired me. Leggett had an unusually high rank in jūdō long before any Westerner. In January 1955 he became the first and only Westerner in that time to hold a Kōdōkan 6th dan. He had met and known Kanō in person. After the death of Kanō he attended a lecture of Nangō Jirō, the second Kōdōkan kanchō, and commented on how little the man understood about Kanō. The situation hardly improved with Kanō Risei and Kanō Yukimitsu, and these two could hardly be called jūdōka. They were kanchō behind a desk, not kanchō on the tatami. Hopes were high for Uemura, someone who had proven his commitment on the tatami, but so far his main achievement is having become a 9th dan at the very young age of 58, something that only meets the challenge of benefit to oneself, not so much to others …

    Towards the end of 1970 Leggett refused being promoted to Kōdōkan 7th dan and as his life continued, he distanced himself more and more from the Kōdōkan and jūdō. I could not understand that. Why would such a knowledgeable man who had had achieved such a senior rank distance himself ? It made no sense. The man had a vast teaching experience, knowledge and commitment, and he understood jūdō much better than any Westerner. The 1970s are four decades in the past, and my experience in jūdō therefore has increased by 40 years. I have studied jūdō through and through, I followed and completed every possible instructors or coaching course, as one of very few people completed a 2,500 hour university degree in teaching jūdō, supervised university students’ theses on jūdō, wrote myself a thesis on budō and bushidō, and another thesis and dissertation on the most complex materials in jūdō, I refereed internationally, I coached, I trained with the best jūdōka and studied with the best and most experienced jūdō teachers, I taught and teach jūdō, and I research every aspect of it, and today I can understand the late TPL's decision very well. Ironically, comprehending jūdō seems a journey that required an enormous investment with very little yield, right the opposite of maximal efficiency, so it seems.

    Last edited by Cichorei Kano on Wed Jul 09, 2014 12:08 pm; edited 1 time in total

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