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    Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House

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    noboru

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    Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House

    Post by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:24 pm

    In the FCB page of Mr. Tatsuya Kibushi are published interesting articles about judo from Maruya Takeshi.

    Author of article: 丸屋 武士(MARUYA Takeshi) (本名 木伏 龍也)


    Last edited by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:37 pm; edited 1 time in total

    noboru

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    Judo and Bushido at the White House

    Post by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:30 pm

    From: https://www.facebook.com/tatsuya.kibushi.54/posts/1665861977027475

    Judo and Bushido at the White House
    “ Speak softly, and carry a big stick, you will go far.”
    This is a proverb in the west Africa and was the motto of the 26th President of the Unite States of America Theodore Roosevelt whose foreign policy was often called Big Stick Diplomacy.
    Being increasingly sensitive to the limits of American power as the President of U.S.A., at that time, Roosevelt perceived the Philippine as America's heel of Achilles and viewed Japan as a counterpoise to Russia.
    He secretly acquiesced to Japanese suzerainty in Korea in return for a disclaimer of any aggressive designs whatever in the Philippines.
    Fostering mediation of the Russo-Japanese War, partly to keep Japan from weighing the balance too heavily, earned Roosevelt the first Nobel Peace Prize.
    Now, the results of two events which happened at the White House in March 1904, 18 months before the conclusion of the Russo-Japanese Peace Treaty in Portsmouth, New Hampshire , were quite exciting and epoch making for Japanese.
    March 1904 was the month of Judo( not Jujutsu but Kodokan Judo) and “Bushido” at the White House.
    In other words, March 1904 was the month of celebration for Japan at the White House.

    Ⅰ Bushido at the White House

    1 Russo-Japanese War
    After five months of negotiation with Russia about the rights and interests in the Korean peninsula,the Japanese government declared a diplomatic breakup with Russia on February 6, 1904.
    Then on February 8, the Japanese Navy tried a sneak attack without success against Russian battleships at Port Arthur and, next day, attacked and sank a Russian cruiser and a gunboat off the Korean coast of Inchon.
    Thus the Russo-Japanese War broke out.
    Before these incidents, the Japanese government decided to start the war against Russia at the Imperial Conference on February 4, 1904.
    On the evening of February 4, the Member of the House of Lords Kentaro Kaneko(Baron) was summoned by telephone to the Official Residence of the Lord President of the Council, where the Lord President Hirobumi Ito asked Kaneko to visit America as soon as possible.
    The Japanese Government's primary purpose for sending Kaneko to the U.S.A. was to promote friendships with President Theodore Roosevelt whom Kaneko met 15 years ago at Washington D.C. where 31 years old Roosevelt was working as the secretary general of the reform committee of public employee system under President Benjamin Harrison.
    In 1889 Kaneko on his way to England, carrying the letter of introduction by William Stargis Bigelow met Theodore Roosevelt as Harvard alumni.
    Bigelow was a member of The Harvard Club in Tokyo of which Kaneko was the president.
    Kaneko at age 36 was on his inspection trip to the American Congress and to the House of Parliament of Great Britain, in order to establish the Japanese Diet in 1890.
    Ever since the impressive first meeting with Roosevelt in 1889, Kaneko kept a friendly relationship with him through occasional correspondence.
    The second purpose for the Japanese Government to send Kaneko to the U.S.A was to turn America's public opinions to pro-Japan.
    For the Americans, Russia was a Christianity country, whereas Japan is a non-Christianity and non-Caucasian country.
    Naturally, the public opinion about the Japanese in America was not as favorable as Japanese expected, especially in California where anti-Japanese sentiment was growing because of an increasing number of Japanese immigrants there.
    At the age of 22 , Hirobumi Ito stowed away to London as a student with his four comrades from Choshu-han(a feudal clan in western Japan) but returned to Japan within a few months to stop the war between his home Choshu-han and the combined fleet of Great Britain, France, Netherlands and the U.S.A. in vain.
    After that incident, however , struggling through political and military chaos of the Meiji Restoration, Ito came to be known as one of the ingenious politician in modern Japan by 1881.
    In 1885, Ito reformed the old imperial government organization into a modern (though superficial) cabinet system and took office as the first Prime Minister of Japan.
    Then Ito proceeded to establish the Constitution of Japan in 1889 and to establish the Diet of Japan in 1890.
    During the Russo-Japanese War, Ito was The Lord President of the Council and Kaneko was one of his confidant since the latter returned to Japan with his bachelor of law degree from Harvard in 1878.
    In the meeting at the evening of February 4,1904, Ito told Kaneko that Japan needed a mediation country to cease fire against Russia.
    Ito persuaded Kaneko as follows:
    “Because the Grate Britain is our alley and France is a Russian ally, these countries can not be a mediation country.
    Though Germany seems to have enough power to be a mediation country, German's attitude toward us does not look friendly.
    So I think the Unite States of America is the best and the only country to be the mediator to end the Russo-Japanese War.
    I know you are a friend of Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, so please go to America as soon as possible and ask him to be the arbitrator between the two countries.
    Also by doing so, I hope you to change the public opinion in the U.S.A. to a pro-Japan one and not to permit upsurge of the yellow peril atmosphere.”

    2 Kaneko's Reluctance to visit America
    For Kaneko, Ito was the benefactor and he had been Ito's confidant serving as the General Manager Secretary when Ito took office as the first Prime Minister of Japan in 1885.
    However, Kaneko who had stayed in and around Boston for eight years and had gotten his bachelor's degree from Harvard Law School could not say yes to Ito's request for the following reasons.
    (1) Through the Independence War in 1775 , the war between Britain and United States in 1812, and the Civil War in 1861, Russia had always supported North America.
    Thus Americans have had good feeling for Russia.
    (2) Alexander Cassini,the Russian Ambassador to the United States of America, who, as the minister to Beijin, had made a big success in concluding the lease treaty of Port Arthur and Dalian with Chinese Government four years before.
    Moreover, Cassini was then the prime minister of the diplomatic corps in Washington D.C. and his daughter was praised as a flower of polite society in Washington .
    Port Arthur and Dalian were supposed to be Japanese leased territories but was returned to China when Russia, France and Germany interfered one week after the conclusion of the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty in April, 1895 .
    (3) Supplying government-procurement products monopolistically, many large companies in America were keeping good relationships with the Russian Government.
    Besides, Russia was a large market for American products such as wheat and canned food, and Russia was the best capital market for Americans.
    Furthermore, in those days, many American millionaires married the Russian nobility.
    Therefore the polite society of America kept a close relation with Russia.
    (4) Because Japan was exporting raw silk and Habutae silk texture to America only on a very small scale the relation between the U.S.A. and Japan was rather thin.
    Considering these situations in America, Kaneko could not say yes to Ito's request and went home that night.
    But the morning after next, Kaneko was summoned by telephone again to Ito at the Official Residence of the Lord President of the Council .
    There Ito told Kaneko as follows:
    “You seem to be hesitating to go to America because you can't accomplish this mission in America.”
    ・・・・(omission)・・・・
    “Nobody in the Japanese Navy, the Army, or in the Ministry of Finance was sure of Japan's victory against Russia.
    However these are tense times all across The Sea of Japan, we have to fight it out risking our country.
    Thus I made up my mind.”
    “So, paying no attention to success or failure; please go to America and do your best to accomplish this mission.
    If you can't persuade Mr. Roosevelt to be the arbitrator and turn American public opinion to pro-Japan, I am sure no other Japanese can do.”
    On February 24, 1904, Kaneko with his followers named Tokutaro Sakai and Jun-ichiro Suzuki departed Yokohama for San Francisco on an American passenger ship “Siberia”.
    On March 11 they arrived at San Francisco where the Neutral Declaration by the U.S. Government had been promulgated earlier, on February 11, the day after the Declaration of War against Russia by Japanese Government.
    From San Francisco, Kaneko traveled for two weeks to reach New York, stopping in Chicago where he made speeches at the oldest Harvard Club and at the Northwestern University.
    In New York, Kaneko held a press conference in which he was asked the purpose of his visit to the United States at that time.
    As for the question why he came to America, which was repeatedly asked since he went ashore at San Francisco, Kaneko insisted all along that he had come to inspect the International Exposition at St. Luis in which Japan exhibited grandly whereas the Russians could not exhibit anything yet because of political chaos in their country.
    In addition to this, Kaneko stated that the other purpose for his visit to America was to inspect minutely American cities which were rapidly industrialized and urbanized at that time.
    However, many American journalists seemed to sense Kaneko's true purpose of the visit to the United States was different.
    Some newspaper likened Kaneko's activity in America to Benjamin Franklin's activity in France at the time of the Independence War of 1775.
    Time finally came.
    On the morning of March 26, 1904, Kaneko payed courtesy visits to the Secretary of the Navy and to the Secretary of State.
    Then, at noon as scheduled, Kaneko, accompanied by Kogoro Takahira who was the Minister of plenipotentiary to the United States arrived at the White House with two followers.
    By doing so he achieved his fatal reunion with Roosevelt after an interval of 15 years.
    To mention it later, Theodore Roosevelt who wrote 38 books and 15oooo letters left to date abounded in physical and mental energy.
    Possessing the gift of words, Roosevelt showed meticulous scholarship and touches of brilliance through two books he wrote in his youth. Especially, by the publication of his magnum opus, the four volume “Wining of the West” at the age of 30, Roosevelt became to be praised as the second coming of George Bancroft.
    George Bancroft entered Harvard College at thirteen years of age and graduated Harvard at age 17, class of 1871, went Germany and received his doctorate from Göttingen University at the age of 19.
    Roosevelt is said to act on impulse and at times on shrewd calculation, generally exude warmth, affection and charm.
    When Kaneko arrived at the White House and showed his name card to the receptionist, Roosevelt came out from Oval Office by himself and holding upper arm of Kaneko pulled him into his office before many visitors of the wait.

    3 The background of Kentaro Kaneko
    Twenty-two years before this fatal reunion, the Japanese Government Mission to negotiate the revision of the unequal treaties with America and European developed countries which is supposed to expire in May 26, 1872, departed Yokohama for America in November 12, 1871.
    This mission led by Tomomi Iwakura, who was the No.2 person in the Japanese Government at that time, included almost half of the members of the Japanese Government including Councilor Takayosi Kido, Tosimichi Ohkubo as the Minister of Finance, Hirobumi Ito as the the Vice Minister of Industry, Hisayosi Yamaguchi as the Assistant Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
    Another purpose of this big mission, spending more than two years in foreign countries,was to inspect and investigate these developed countries such as the U.S.A.,the Great Britain and France for the modernization of Japan.
    Via the United States, this so-called Iwakura Mission, unprecedented in the Japanese history in terms of its scale and time spent, visited Great Britain, France, Belgium, Russia, Italy and returned to Japan in September, 1874.
    As for the abolition of extraterritoriality, recovery of the tariff autonomy and prohibition of the landing by the foreign armed forces, this mission accomplished no practical purpose.
    The United States and European countries treated Japan as a barbarian nation or a semi-colony, and that situation kept on until Japan's victory at the Sino-Japanese War in 1895.
    However, we can say that the success of modernization of Japan by the time of the Russo-Japanese War was the result of the inspection and investigation by this big mission, which was unprecedented in the Japanese history.
    During their two year journey, Ito and other main members of the mission came to a conclusion that, as far as the modernization of its industry and infrastructure was concerned, Japan could catch up with these developed countries within 40 or 50 years.
    Furthermore this so-called Iwakura-Mission had 59 students in its party; they wanted to study in these foreign countries, especially in the United States.
    The youngest student who headed for the United State accompanying this mission was Miss Umeko Tsuda, who was only eight years old when she departed and returned to Japan at the age of 17.
    Struggling to adjust herself to the Japanese society, in 1889, she returned to the United States again when she was 22 and studied there for three more years. She eventually established Tsuda Colledge in 1900.
    Among the 59 members, Kentaro Kaneko, who was a follower of Kuroda the feudal lord involved in this mission, entered an elementary school in New England at the age of 18 to strengthen his basics English skills.
    Graduating the accelerated class of the elementary school, Kaneko entered the English High School of Boston.
    After he finished high school, Kaneko started to work at the Grey & Swift Law Office to study the business of law.
    Having done such preparation thoroughly, Kaneko entered the Harvard Law School in 1876 and graduated two years later.
    While enrolled in the Harvard Law School, Kaneko lived in the same rooming house with Jutaro Komura who was one of the eight students who studied in the U.S.A. These eight students were the first people selected and sent in 1875 by the Japanese Government to study in the United States.
    Later in the Russo-Japanese War, Komura was the Minister of Foreign Affairs; then he was appointed as the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary for the Japan and Russia peace treaty conclusion.
    Kaneko's eight years study abroad was financed by Nagahiro Kuroda, an ex-feudal lord of Fukuoka.
    In 1878, Kaneko returned to Japan and held a job for a while as a tutor for the prep school forTokyo University.
    In 1880, Kaneko was appointed to be the assistant secretary of the Senate House to study the constitution which was to be promulgated within ten years.
    Then, as stated above ,Kaneko was appointed to the Secretary of the Prime Minister Ito as the first Prime Minister of Japan in 1885.When Ito was transferred to the Lord President of the Council in 1888, Kaneko was appointed as the Secretary of the Lord President of the Council.

    4 At the White House
    Theodore Roosevelt was so warm and helpful toward Kaneko that he held a full-scale talk only two days after their fatal reunion.
    In March 28, 1904 Kaneko was invited to the White House , having lunch together, and Roosevelt told him as follows:
    “Mainly because I interviewed with Mr. Fenollosa(Ernest Francisco Fenollosa) and Mr.Bigelow (William Stargis Bigelow), I was so interested in Japan that I eventually invited Mr.Fenollosa to the White House and let him lecture about Japan not only for me but also for my acquaintances and companions.
    Since then, I have always loved and respected Japan more than anyone else here and, therefore, studied more about Japan by reading various books.
    However, I have not yet grasped the spirit of Japanese people, so please tell me the books by which I can grasp the characteristics of Japanese people and the driving force of their mind formation.”
    Accepting the president's request Kaneko recommended two books.
    The first book Kaneko introduced was “BUSHIDO-the Soul of Japan”, written by Inazo Nitobe. Another book he introduced was “Heroic Japan”,written by Frederick Eastlake who was a teacher at Keio University and was called the Doctor of Language for his wide knowledge of 23 languages including Sanskrit and Arabia.
    Eastlake could speak Japanese, German, French, Spanish and Italian as if he were a native speaker of each language. In addition, he was able to speak ancient forms of English including Middle English.
    “Bushido” is a classic to which generations of scholars and laymen alike have long referred for insights into the character of the Japanese people.
    It was written in English and published in the United States in 1900, within a few years it had been translated into Japanese and seven other languages.
    Two months later, on June 6, 1904, Kaneko was invited to the White House for the lunch with President Roosevelt.
    At this third meeting between them , Roosevelt remarked as follows:
    “ BUSHIDO”, you introduced me at the last meeting was a good book which described the Japanese spirits most effectively.
    By reading that book, I could understand the moral characters of Japanese citizens for the first time in my life.
    I ordered 30 copies of “BUSHIDO”, and distributed them to my friends and I also gave a copy of the book to each of my five children.
    Giving the book to my children, I ordered them to cultivate noble and elegant character, and faithful and hardy mind like the Japanese.”
    During the following year and a half since that meeting, Kaneko had met Roosevelt at the White House 10 several times taking lunch or interviewing in the middle of night.
    Thus, the first purpose of Kaneko's visit to America, namely to promote a friendship with the President of the United States, was fully accomplished.
    Later in 1906 Roosevelt denounced a decision by the San Francisco School Board to segregate Japanese schoolchildren as a crime against a friendly nation. ( To be continued ) 
    丸屋 武士(MARUYA Takeshi)、本名(木伏 龍也)
    Photo: “BUSHIDO-The Soul of Japan” published by Kodansha U.S.A. in 2002 based on tenth and revised edition published in 1905


    Last edited by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:40 pm; edited 1 time in total

    noboru

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    Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House - second part

    Post by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:31 pm

    From: https://www.facebook.com/tatsuya.kibushi.54/posts/1669261240020882


    Ⅱ Judo at the White House

    1 A bout of Judo against wrestling at the White House
    25 days before Kentaro Kaneko made the fatal reunion with President Theodore Roosevelt at the White House , there was a historic confrontation of Judo and wrestling at the White House in March 1, 1904.
    While Judo-ka(Judoist) Yositsugu Yamashita representing the Kodokan-Judo was 149 pounds in weight and 3 inches of 5 feet tall, the wrestler, Jorge Grant, the Captain of U.S. Navy was 350 pounds in weight and 7 inches of 6 feet tall.
    Against 30 years old Grant wearing wrestling tights, 40 years old Yamashita in Judo wear considered that if they grappled together solidly he could not win that martial art match.
    Right after the start sign of the match, Yamashita set foot techniques such as Kouchigari not to grapple together solidly.
    Irritated Grant tried to bend over Yamashita, then Yamashita set Tomoe-nage.
    Falling down on his back, Yamashita put his sole on Grant's inferior belly and threw Grant over his head.
    In no time possessing Grant's back , Yamasita set the chalking technique Hadaka-jime.
    From the rear, with his forearm Yamashita strangled Grant to block his respiratory tract and suffocate Grant.
    In desperation Grant carelessly stretched his left arm to stand up, then Yamashita set Udehisigi-jujigatame.
    Tightening Grant's root of left brachial with his both legs and holding Grant's left wrist with his both hands, Yamashita stretched Grant's elbow joint.
    Grant could not endure any more ant beat the mat with his right hand, surrendered.
    Thus President Roosevelt recognized the power of Judo as a martial arts clearly.

    2 President Roosevelt attracted by Kodokan Judo
    Next day after the historic confrontation between Yamashita and Grant, on March 2, 1904, Yamashita who was attended by naval attache to the legation in Washington D.C commander Isamu Takeshita., explained and demonstrated the Judo realistically.
    Yamashita taught Takeshita Judo when he was the Judo instructor at Japan's Naval Academy at Edajima in Hiroshima prefecture.
    Moreover, after Yamashita was transferred to the Judo instructor at the Naval Staff College of Japan, he taught Takeshita Judo over and over when Takeshita entered the College twice.
    Helped by Takeshita, Yamashita not only demonstrated and explained the Kodokan-Judo to the President but also let The President have a true experience of Judo.
    Roosevelt had experienced many sports, mostly tennis and horseback-riding, and therefore he had extraordinary talent of the martial arts; his long experience of wrestling and boxing made him interested in Kodokan-Judo.
    This series of events brought beneficial results which were pretty exciting and unprecedented for Japanese people.
    For the first result, Yamashita was formally adopted as an instructor at American Naval Academy with annual salary of 4000 dollars as newly Judo course was included in a regular curriculum. First lieutenant of Japanese Navy gained 200 dollars annually; compared with that, it is obvious that Yamashita's salary was extremely high.
    Secondly, the part of study of the White House was converted to the Judo dojo with 70 tatami-mat where President Roosevelt and his family practiced Judo three times in a week with Yamashita, and occasionally with Yamashita and Takeshita together.
    The White House where Yamashita had to teach Judo three times in a week looked like the permanent residence for him.
    Incidentally the White House and Annapolis Naval Academy is the adjacent spots on tourist root.
    On the other hand, Takeshita permitted to visit the White House without appointment as an attache of legations and consulates of Japan, got an exceptional social position in Washington D.C.
    On March 17 Takeshita received the Invitation Letter for the dinner in the White House.
    In the evening of March 20, 1904, Takeshita was honored to have dinner with Mr. and Mrs. President, Chief Justice, Secretary of Interior Hitchcock, Chief of Staff of the Army Chaffee, Sen. Aldrich and Sen. Foraker.
    The reason why Takeshita gained such a great opportunity despite his position is Kodokan-Judo.
    In his letter to his wife who was living in an official dwelling of Japanese Navy with their baby in Sasebo Kyushu, Takeshita said that everybody felt jealous of the unprecedented treatment.
    As Takeshita added in his letter to his wife, this unprecedented treatment for a commander of Japanese Navy was because Takeshita had visited the White House often to teach President Roosevelt Judo, not only explaining its principle but also let the President have a true experience of throwing tactic.
    Anyway, Takeshita was respected and envied by everybody living in the D.C.
    Ordering strict neutrality by the presidential administrative order only ten days before, behaving like an ostrich, President Roosevelt's pro-Japanese sympathies was clear.
    The Russian Ambassador to America Alexander Cassini and his subordinates in Washington D.C. must be furious.
    Thus March 1904 became the month of celebration for both Judo and Bushido at the White House.

    3 Yamashita and Kodokan Judo
    Yamashita was born as a son of the Odawara feudal clan martial arts instructor in 1865.
    In 1884 he became a disciple of Kodokan and began to receive instruction of Jigoro Kano who established Kodokan in 1882.
    As Yamshita was permitted to enroll Kano-juku which is a supplementary private school run by Kano, he worked hard at English as long as ascetic practice of Judo.
    From January 1 to December 31, he had been working on those kind of lessons without taking rest or holiday.
    Having experiencing the painstaking effort and having natural talent of the martial art, Yamashita at the age of 24 was appointed to a Judo instructor of Tokyo Imperial University and Naval Academy.
    Improving himself as a great Judoka, Yamasita was not only transferred to a instructor at the
    Naval Staff College of Japan as stated above but also was appointed to an instructor at Keio University.
    These two appointment did not intend to lead to the realization of Yamasita's dream of 1904 at the White House.
    Students of Keio University judo club often visited the newly-married Mr. and Mrs. Yamashita and enjoyed eating and drinking.
    In 1901, one of the graduate of Keio University Judo club, Ichinou(Kazuyori) Shibata made a voyage to America to study at Yale University.
    Shibata who had 2nd-dan with black belt, ( college student having 2nd-dan was rare at that time), entered Keio University as a bright person on behalf of a priest of Nichiren denomination of Buddhism and chosen after graduation more by one of the foreign students to the United States.
    At the farewell party of Shibata, Yamashita made the following speech:
    “I myself want to be active abroad.
    I want to show Japanese superior culture to the world.
    Especially I want to make an effort to spread in America Kodokan Judo of which you should be proud to the world.”
    Soon after arriving at America, Shibata became a friend of the stepson of James Hill by the introduction of Seijiro Furuya who was the president of the Japan Society in New York.
    James Hill was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Grate Northern Railroad.
    Hill who was known as the Empire Builder did much of the route planning himself traveling over proposed route on horseback.
    In January 1893 his Great Northern Railway, running from St. Paul, Minnesota to Seattle, Washington-distance of more than 2700km- was completed.
    One day Shibata with his Japanese friend had a chance to demonstrate Judo to the stepson of Hill at Hill's residence.
    After the demonstration James Hill told Shibata that he want to give his stepson education of Bushido.
    Spontaneously remembering Yamashita's desire for spreading Judo in America , Shibata wrote to Yamashita asking him to be a Judo instructor for Hill's stepson.
    Getting permission from Jigoro Kano to resign the Metropolitan Police Department judo instructor post, Yamashita with his wife Fudeko departed from Yokohama to America in September 1903.
    However at the Hill's residence in New York, Yamashita's lesson to Hill's stepson had been canceled by stubborn objection of Mrs. Hill who insisted that Judo training was too dangerous for her stepson.
    However, while overcoming uneasiness for the future, Yamashita, was eventually introduced to the Washington polite society by aid of James Hill, whereYamashita's wonderful skill was accepted and was able to build first footing in the United State.
    Besides,Yamashita's wife Fudeko who was bright enough liked by others, opened a classroom for defense in which many people including Commander-in-chief of Confederate Army General Lee's grand daughters became disciples.
    50 years passed since the the end of the Civil War , wound was cured nationally, Yamashitas in Washington D.C. must observe industrialization and urbanization going ahead through rapidly.
    Most helpful person for Yamashitas was Mrs. Martha Blow Wadsworth who had been praised as a woman of influence of the Washington polite society and provided practice field (Judo-dojo) in her own mansion.
    Finally Yamashita was able to get the favor of the President Theodore Roosevelt by her introduction.
    In 1935 at the funeral of Yamashita, Jigoro Kano who founded Kodokan at the age of 23 and was 76 years old at that time, gave the first 10th dan black belt to Yamshita as the highest instructor of Kodokan.

    4 Kodokan Judo, the innovation of a new technique.
    4-1 Bullying in the school
    Judo originates from Jujutsu and Kano's point of contact with the Jujutsu was bullying in the school.
    If anything Kano of the boyhood was weak, lower than normal in the physical thing.
    On December 9, 1860, Kano was borne in a wealthy and outstanding family who was a master of brewing and Kaisen-donya( wholesaler in port) in Kobe.
    Being the third son of three brothers and having five elder sisters Kano was brought up in a deluxe mansion in Nada, Kobe until he lost his mother due to illness when he was ten years old.
    In 1870, eleven years old Kano was brought to Tokyo by his father who was a technocrat in the Department of Navy in the infancy.
    From his father's house at Kakigara-cho where more than ten servants were working for his father , Kano attended to the cram school to practice mainly penmanship.
    The school was located at Hukagawa and was operated by Keido Ubukata who's motto was wakon-yosai( Japanese spirit with Western learning) had taken Kano's measure and introduced Kano to Shuhei Mitsukuri who had been evaluated as so-heki( a pair of matchless people in operating English school in Tokyo along with Yukichi Fukuzawa who ran the Keio Gijuku( forerunner of Keio University).
    Thus Kano could learn English at Mitsukuri's school which is located in the neighborhood of Kano.
    In 1873 at the age of 14, Kano started to a life at Ikuei Gijuku Boarding School in Sinbashi where the terminal station of Japan's first railroad line from Yokohama had been built just one year ago.
    In that school Kano got general education such as English, German and arithmetic by German teacher Wessell( vice principal) and Dutch teacher Lighe.
    Though Kano was a distinguished student here especially good at arithmetic, he was bullied by some boys with good build.
    Then in 1875 Kano entered the Kaisei-Gakkou( forerunner of Tokyo University), boys with physical strength and roughness bullied Kano who was bright but weak.
    Knowing that in Japan there had been Jujutsu by which a person of the helplessness could beat a person of the enormous strength, Kano started to look for the master of Jujutsu( classical Japanese martial art, usually referring to fighting without weapon).
    However, due to the historic backdrops Kano could not find a master.
    During the Meiji era(1868-1912), especially in the first half of the Meiji era, Jujutsu along with other traditional martial arts, was discarded and almost totally forgotten as Japan embarked on its quest for Western-style modernization.
    In other words, the martial arts fell into disuse with the total abolition of the feudal system and was near extinction.
    In 1877 when the Kaisei-Gakkou changed its name to the Tokyo University, Kano keeping to look for a master of Jujutsu was admitted as a fresh man to the Department of the Political Science and Economics at the Faculty of Letters of the Tokyo University.
    At the same time Kano could finally find the master of Jujutu, Hachinosuke Hukuda who was a bone-setter beside teaching the Tenjin-Shinyo-ryu ( school) Jujutsu.
    Shortly after Kano started to take lessons from Fukuda, old Fukuda passed away and Kano became Masatomo Iso's pupil practicing the same Tenjin-Shinyou-ryu.
    Every day after dinner from his home at Kakigara-cho, he walked to the Iso-dojo in Kanda, Kano practiced Kata( various forms in Jujutsu) against about 30 pupils, then practiced Randori( free practice like a match) against all those pupils until sometimes 11 pm.
    On his way home after practice Kano was so tired that he often fell and collided with wall of roadside.
    And again he lost his master because of ill in 1881, Kano who was a senior in the Tokyo University was introduced by his friend the master of Kito-Ryu (Kito-school) Jujutsu, Tsunetoshi Iikubo.
    Though the Kito-ryu Jujutsu which was based on grappling in armor was totally different from the Tenjin-Shinyo-ryu Jujutsu, Kano worked hard at more practice with the master Iikubo.
    Not only the classmate but also all the elite students of The Faculty of the Letters of the Tokyo University including the first graduates Tenshin(Kakuzo) Okakura with seven other students, second graduates Jigoro Kano with five other students, third graduates Sanae Takada with nine other students must be surprised to see Kano in his class room applying adhesive plasters on his legs and arms.
    As a result of having such a training for three or four years, the mind and body of Kano became stout beyond recognition.
    In 1881, a year before opening of the Kodokan, Kano majoring in political science and economics graduated from Tokyo University, and then achieved bachelor entrance to the Department of Philosophy of the Faculty of the Literature, Tokyo University, in order to study philosophy from professor Fenollosa.
    Ernest Francisco Fenollosa, majoring in philosophy at the Harvard University, graduated at the top of the class getting masters degree in sequence.
    To mention it later, he became a foreign teacher in Japanese government employ at particularly high salary teaching not only philosophy but also economics and political science in response to the request of Tokyo University authorities.
    Fenollosa at age 25, living with his wife Lizzie in a house built by the Japanese government, could employ ten Japanese including a butler and several maidservants.
    4-2 From Jujutu to Judo
    The Kito-ryu are based primarily on battlefield throwing techniques for warriors wearing armor, whereas the Tenjin Shinyo-ryu techniques centered on throws, strikes and grappling in ordinary clothing.
    Though throwing technique were not a predominant feature of the Tenjin-Shinyo-ryu, its striking and grappling technique were comparatively sophisticated.
    After having become a complete master of these schools, using Kito-ryu and Tenjin-Shinyo-ryu as a platform, Kano researched other schools of Jujutu thoroughly and deduced the principle of jujutsu, namely Ju-no-ri.
    The meaning of the word Jujutsu is “ the Soft Art”, and may be defined as the art of gaining victory by yielding to the strength.
    Before Kano, Ju-no-ri meant to avoid challenging an opponent’s force directly in favor of using it to one's advantage.
    Kano corrected and refined the principle of Ju-no-ri as follows:
    “Attaining victory through Jujutsu means not going against the force of your opponent's strength, but applying enough power to invoke a reaction so that he reacts and become unbalanced; after which you can then execute an appropriate technique.”
    Picking out useful aspects and discarding anything he considered dangerous or impractical, Kano created a new pedagogical framework that fitted modern social and educational needs.
    Blending old with new, Kano at age 23, formalized his new jujutu as “ Nihon-den Kodokan Judo” at the Eishoji Temple in May 1882 with only 9 disciples.
    It was only five years after the last civil war( Seinan-senso) in Japan.
    The characters used for Kodokan can be translated as meaning “ the hall(kan) in which the ' Way'(do) is taught.”
    Jujutsu would have fallen into total oblivion had not Jigoro Kano come to revive and reconstruct it with remarkable success.
    In other word, Kano succeeded to achieve a global scale innovation by establishing Kodokan Judo through Jujutsu.
    As Joseph Schumpeter argued, Kano as an entrepreneur caused old ideas, technologies, skills which were included in Jujutsu to become obsolete through his “creative destruction”.
    4-3 The secret of Kano's sucsess
    There had been more than 100 Jujutu-ryuha(schools or sects) before Kano established Kodokan in 1882, in almost all of which the Jujutsu masters had been teaching only Kata ( various forms) and few masters were carrying out Randori(free practice like a match).
    Old Jujutsu schools taught solely through repetition of Kata(forms).
    Kano was not satisfied with the conventional Jujutsu, especially its exercise method of Kata only.
    The instruction style of conventional Jujutsu schools was unforgiving with most teachers subjecting their students to the rigors of physical training without attempting to elucidate the underlying principles, training through rote repetition of the Kata techniques.
    In Kata exercise, Tori (pupil who demonstrate the technique) repeats the same technique one-sidedly against a non-resisting Uke(pupil who is supposed to be thrown down by Tori's technique).
    Kano searched the way to pursue the principle and find skills on the principle to be the tool by which he could contribute to the individual lives of practitioners.
    He felt if he could improve the conventional Jujutsu to make more practical and more effective martial arts, he could give valuable effects on intellectual education, physical education, and especially moral education which is most important for young generation.
    What was most needed in Japan then was moral education for young generation, he wanted for that purpose to recommend Jujutsu improved by his thorough study and devoted effort.
    Since Haihan-Chiken( the feudal domain system abolished and prefectures system introduced in 1872)only eleven years passed, Japan was not in civilized but in quite primitive stage as a modern state.
    For instance, in the early period of Meiji era, at the Keio Gijuku ( forerunner of Keio University) some students who used to be Samurai of Tosa Domain were walking in the campus with a sword in a red lacquer sheath or ostentatiously dressed in a red woman's kimono plundered in the battlefield during the civil war at Aizu, Fukushima prefecture in 1867.
    On March 28,1876, a law called the Law of Prohibition of Carrying Swords was finally issued.
    Explaining Kano's idea, Mr. Alex Bennett who translated “ Jigoro Kano And the Kodokan―An Innovative Response to Modernization" published by Kodokan in 2009, put it this way:
    “Kano was clearly an idealist and possessed an unwavering confidence and passion for propagating Judo to the wider community.
    It was the first attempt to systematize a combat art into a succinct pedagogical framework for all people(as opposed to the privileged class of samurai) with the goal of encouraging “national prosperity”.
    Thus, Kano's declaration of his choice to use “do” instead of “jutsu” was significant ideological turning point for all of the martial arts.
    He accentuated Judo's edifying potential and considered practical applications(Jutsu) as important, albeit secondary, and modified violent jujutsu techniques into a “Way” of training for a better life.”
    In other words, Kano expected the new Jujutsu would be a method to train mind of people beyond a method to compete for the supremacy of particular skill.”
    As Kano asserted, the technical aspects of Kodokan Judo was quite completed by 1887.
    Without any hesitation Kano abandoned conventional customs of Jujutu and founded a new exercise system by fixing the Randori in the the center of exercise system of Kodokan Judo.
    The Randori exercise was developed from the old “Nokoriai” exercise method of Kata : in this method, one's opponent(Uke) who is supposed to be thrown by Tori, but in this exercise, Uke resist. If Tori's technique is insufficient to throw Uke, Tori must try again with more skill, the Uke again resists Tori's skill, and so on.
    Moreover, Kano regarded Nage-waza ( throwing technique) as important rather than Osae-waza (grappling technique).
    Above all, Kano excluded Atemi-waza(the art of striking vital points) and a part of Kansetsu-Waza( joint techniques) from the Randori system leaving them in the traditional Kata system of Kodokan such as Kime-no-Kata(Decisive Forms).
    As a result of drastic exchange only for throws without minding Atemi-waza( knockdown blow) and Kansetsu-waza( joint techniques such as twisting wrist or finger) , the disciples of Kodokan who start exercise or bout by taking a collar and the sleeve each other, could arrive at remarkably high level in Nage-waza(throwing technique).
    Unlike the one-sided exercise called the exercise of Kata(the form) which had been the main stream of Jujutu-schools, in Randori exercise( free practice like a match), discrimination time for each other's attacks and defense is probably a one-tenth second level.
    Training to react and cope with the opponent before this time is the greatest merit of Randori exercise.
    In other words, to pursue most effective Nage-waza Randori, removing Atemi-waza( knockdown blow)and the part of Kansetsu-waza such as twisting wrist or finger was the key factor for Kodokan Judo to have been dominant over the world.
    Establishing Randori-centerd exersize system which lead thorough pursuit of throwing technique, Kano gave Nage-waza(throws) remarkable speed and exquisiteness.
    By 1892, many public and private schools came to recognize the real merits of the Kodokan Judo.
    The Naval Academy, The First, Third and Fifth Higher Normal Academies, the Gakushuin( the School for the Sons of Noblemen), the Keio Gijuku( the forerunner of Keio University), and the Imperial University were chief establishments where the Kodokan Judo was being learned under Kano himself or his skilled disciples as Yamashita.
    With ardent zeal, but with complete discipline, boys mostly between ten and twenty years of age, studied the Kodokan Judo in a spacious hall( dojo) adapted to the purpose.
    Studying Kodokan Judo in which the Randori exercise is in the center of the exercise system was the chief amusement for most of students after school.
    In London Olympic Game of 2012, excellent Judo players from all over the world won the gold, silver and bronze medals by throwing techniques(Nage-waza) with remarkable speed and exquisiteness, combined with Kansetu-waza(joint technique such as Udehishigi-jujigatame) , Shime-waza(choking technique such as Okuri-erijime) or Osae-waza( grappling technique such as Yoko-shiho-gatame). (To be continued)

    丸屋 武士(Takeshi MARUYA)、本名(木伏 龍也)


    Last edited by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:46 pm; edited 2 times in total

    noboru

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    Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House - last (third) part

    Post by noboru on Fri May 27, 2016 5:38 pm

    From Tatsuya Kibushi - FCB page https://www.facebook.com/tatsuya.kibushi.54/posts/1689098194703853

    Author of article: 丸屋 武士(MARUYA Takeshi) (本名 木伏 龍也)

    Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House

    Theodore Roosevelt began full-scale study on Japan by the conversation with William Bigelow and Arnest Fenollosa as an opportunity. President Roosevelt and Bigelow were the close friend ; When in Boston, Roosevelt and his family stayed at the mansion of William Bigelow in Beacon Street. While in Washington D.C. Bigelow stayed at the White House, and they called each other “ Ted” and “ Bill”. In these relationship, Arnest Fenollosa , a close friend of Bigelow since their lives in Tokyo, was invited to the White House to perform lectures about Japan on March 21 and 27, 1904.
    Before that lecture, Fenollosa who embraced Japanese culture stated as follows in his article titled “JAPANESE PLACES IN HISTORY” written in 1899.
    “・・・Let us mark again where the finger of history points. If all this be true, Japan stands outlined as a unique nation as much reserved for a unique purpose as was two thousand years ago the race of the Jews. China has been hardly slower than America to grasp the facts that lie under her nose. Europe is haughty and stubborn, and pretends to despise the very Oriental lore which she devours on the sly. England has not quite cracked the nut of India. A sympathy of races that shall be more than tolerant is still embryonic. Japan alone is consciously aiming to fit the utilitarian science of the West into the more idealistic and charitable policy of the East. Here alone is a mingling of world-types real, vital, and prophetic. It is this makes Japan's supreme and unique opportunity. To her it is providentially given to become a pioneer for all mankind. What China and India on the one side, and America and England and Russia on the other must eventually come to, however slowly and reluctantly, it is her privilege to explore gladly. The issue of her experiments must become a precedent for the laggards. It is not too much to declare that the very social solution Japan is spelling out to-day shall become the type of that united world's civilization in the third millennium which shall be so much the richer than all its predecessors that it includes all of their finest experience.・・・ ”

    Ⅲ  Morse, Fenollosa , Bigelow and Kano

    1. Morse and Fenollosa at Tokyo University(the predecessor of The University of Tokyo)
    First as an American, Edward Sylvester Morse received the Medal of the Order of the Rising Sun from the Emperor of Japan, and also received the Medal of Sacred Treasure from the country in 1898.
    He was born in Portland, Maine as the son of a Congregationalist deacon who held strict Calvinist beliefs. His mother, who did not share her husband's religious beliefs, encouraged her son's interest in the sciences. As an unruly student whom teachers disliked, he skipped classes and wandered around woods or seashore, collecting snails and shells. At the age of 17, Edward Morse whose collection of shells and snails received considerable attention from others, joined the Portland Society of Natural History.
    Incidentally when The Origin of Species of Darwin was published in 1859, Edward Morse aged at 21, was enrolled as a special student in the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University, and became an assistant to zoologist Louis Agassiz in the university's Museum of Comparative Zoology.
    Without receiving a degree, Morse was appointed to the chair of comparative anatomy and zoology at Bowdoin College from 1871 to 1874. In 1874, he became a lecturer at Harvard University, then in 1876, was named a fellow of the National Academy of Science.
    Continuing his study of mollusks he deduced that brachiopods, then placed in a phylum of their own, were more closely related to worms. Because a number of species of brachiopods had been documented in Japan, Morse traveled there in 1877 and set up a seaside laboratory at Enoshima, near Yokohama.
    He was promptly invited to be the first professor of Zoology at the Medical Department of Tokyo University( forerunner of Imperial University of Tokyo and the present University of Tokyo).
    By being eloquent and sociable, he was deeply trusted by the authorities of Tokyo University who had determined to improve its scholarly basis.
    Accepting the request of the authorities of Tokyo University, Morse recommended Thomas Mendenhall as a professor of physics and Ernest Fenollosa as a professor of philosophy at Tokyo University. Although lacking conventional academic credentials, Mendenhall was gaining impressive reputation as a teacher and educator at Agriculture and Mechanical College of Ohio which later became Ohio State University.
    In addition Morse preached the need of “the society” and with botany professor Ryokichi Yatabe at Tokyo University established the first society in Japan; The Tokyo Biology Society. What is more, for the first time in Japan Edward Morse introduced Darwin's evolutionary theory in malice and the objections of Christianity propagators.
    As having mentioned in the chapter 2 of this column, in response to request of Tokyo University authorities, Fenollosa started to teach not only philosophy but also economics and political science at the Department of the Political Science and Economics. In the class room there, Fenollosa had his historic encounter with Jigoro Kano as a sophomore applying adhesive plasters on his legs and arms.
    Spending hours every day in hard practice of Jujutsu, thanks to Fenollosa, it was the thought of John Stuart Mill to have become Kano's blood relatives.
    Fenollosa used as a text book “ On Liberty” by John Stuart Mill for the class of political science, and for the class of economics he used Mill's “ Principles of Political Economy”. Kano's soul must have been shaken by Mill's argument that free discourse is necessary condition for intellectual and social progress.
    For the class of philosophy in the department of philosophy to which Kano achieved bachelor entrance after graduating the department of political science and economics, Fenollosa used as a text book the English translation book of “ The history of philosophy, general statement” by Friedrich Karl Albert Schwegler. Fenollosa's lecture to summarize the main point, and to comment on clearly was high in popularity among students who was going to take in Western new Knowledge in greed.
    In the lecture of the history of philosophy, Fenollosa is said to put important point in comparison with German idealism philosophy of Kant and Hegel, Mill's utility philosophy, and Herbert Spencer's theory of evolution philosophy.

    2 Bigelow in Japan
    In the meantime, Morse who recommended Fenollosa to Tokyo University, returned to America in November 1877, with leave from the university authorities. While in America, he collected 2500 books and pamphlets which became basic books of newly founded library of Tokyo University. In April 1878, Morse with his family came back to Tokyo University, and after serving out the term in the school, left Japan in September 1879.
    Three years later, in June 1882, Morse returned on a third visit to Japan to collect clay samples and finished ceramics in which he had much interest. At this time, he was not with his family but with William Stargis Bigelow aged at 32 . Bigelow was so impressed by Morse's lecture about Japan in Boston that he decided to visit Japan for a trip of self-discovery, abandoning his carrier as the doctor.
    During Summer of 1882, Morse, Fenollosa and Bigelow traveled together to Kansai district in order to collect Japanese works of art; Morse collected mainly ceramics. Fenollosa collected mainly pictures. Bigelow collected mainly swords, brims of the swords and lacquer works.
    From April 1883 to April 1886, Bigelow was the lecturer of autogenesis theory and epidemic basic theory at the Medical Department of Tokyo University. Compared with Morse's salary 350 yen per month and Fenollosa's salary 300 yen, Bigelow's salary 50 yen was rather low, although the starting salary of police officer and elementary school teacher was 6 or 5 yen at that time in Tokyo.
    However, money didn't matter for Bigelow who was a natural millionaire, and he spent seven years without break in Japan, collecting Japanese works of art and devoting himself to a study of Northern Buddhism and its philosophy.
    William Sturgis Bigelow was born as the only son of Henry Jacob Bigelow, eminent physician of Boston and typical Boston Brahmin. His mother Susan Sturgis was born as the youngest girl of William Sturgis who became a millionaire by reclamation of the Oriental trade. As only child, he was left solitary by the early death of his mother at the age of three, William Bigelow grew to manhood shy and retiring.
    Via a local elementary school Bigelow entered private Dixwell School at which he received education mainly by the classics and became a close friend of Henry Cabot Lodge. It is widely known that Henry Cabot Lodge was the close friend of the life with Theodore Roosevelt.
    After Dixwell School, Bigelow with his friend Lodge passed through Harvard College without special distinction (class of 1871), and then, he took up the study of medicine at Harvard along with his father's request. His father Henry who received the Argenteuil Prize from the French Academy of Medicine was the Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School from 1849 until his retirement in 1882.
    After graduating from the Harvard Medical School in 1874, William Bigelow spent five years in Europe and developed a keen interest in the purely scientific aspects of medicine such as investigation of bacteriology. On the other hand, while staying in Europe, especially in Paris, Bigelow was strongly attracted by trendy Japonism in those days. There, he purchased Ukiyoe prints, Netsuke and traditional industrial arts imported from Japan.
    For Bigelow who returned from Europe in 1879, more practical phase of a practitioner's routine was rather distasteful. But his father prevailed upon him to take the post of surgeon to out-patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital.
    The reason why Bigelow paid attention to Japan was a lecture about Japan which Edward Morse performed in Boston. As stated above, Bigelow left Boston and after the voyage to become the turning point of his life, went ashore not on Europe but at Yokohama on June 5, 1882 as a traveling companion of Edward Morse who returned on a third visit to Japan.
    The biggest achievement by Bigelow in Japan was his generous economic help to the “Japanese Painting( Art ) Revivalism” which Fenollosa and his pupil Kakuzo (Tenshin) Okakura propeled.
    By the help of the Kanga-kai( Fine Art Association) to which Bigelow endowed the fund, Hogai Kano, Gaho Hashimoto and many other painters were able to escape from economic difficulties.
    Further, when Kakuzo Okakura resigned(ousted) from his position as principal of the Tokyo School of Fine Arts and established the Japan Art Academy newly in 1898, Bigelow remitted as much as 10000 dollar (20000 yen) in response to a telegram from Okakura which called for financial support. That large amount of money far exceeded Okakura's and his follower's imagination.
    Thus, Bigelow played a decisive role in the establishment of the Japan Art Academy. In recognition of his attainments, Japanese Government made him a Commander of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun.
    During seven years stay without break in Japan, Bigelow is said to collect 15000 artworks including 800 pieces of Noh costume and a famous sward of the national treasure grade, named “Yasutsuna”.
    After his death in Oct, 6, 1926, all of these artworks were donated to the Museum of Fine Art , Boston by his will and continue up to the present day.
    It is a nice talk for Japanese that William Bigelow who wrote the letter of introduction which led Kentaro Kaneko's friendship with President Roosevelt, is estimated as “ a benefactor of the Japanese art” along with Morse and Fenollosa.
    Furthermore, Bigelow, not only collected Japanese artworks with his large fortune, but also converted daringly to a Buddhist along with Fenollosa.
    He began ascetic practice of the Esoteric Buddhism of the Tendai sect religion under Keitoku Sakurai Ajari of Homyo-in, Mii-dera Temple located in Ohtsu, just outskirt of Kyoto.
    In September 21, 1885, Fenollosa received Bosatsu- kai( Bodhisattve Precepts) by Keitoku Sakurai Ajari at the residence of Hisanari Machida in Koume-mura village( a part of Sumida-ku,now) in Tokyo. Ajari means a master and high priest in esoteric Buddhism.
    At the same time Bigelow received Commandments for Ten Good Seeds by Sakurai. Just six days before this incident Kakuzo Okakura became a disciple of Sakurai at Machida's residence.
    From Mii-dera in Ohtsu, on his tour of teaching and spreading the Esoteric Buddhism of the Tendai sect religion, Sakurai was staying at Machida's residence whenever he was in Tokyo.
    Sakurai granted “ Getsu-shin(月心)” to Bigelow and “ Tai-shin(諦心)” to Fenollosa as their Buddhist name. Kakuzo Okakura later came to call himself “ Ten-shin”.
    Hisanari Machida, the First Director of the Imperial House Museum ( forerunner of the National Museum) who helped these three Americans had strong desire to prevent Japanese work of art being washed away abroad.
    Aged at 28, Machida learned as an auditor of the Letter of the Law Department in the University College of London University for one year from 1865 to1866. He was the leader of 15 students who smuggled into London by the domain order of Satsuma-han feudal clan. He visited Paris twice to prepare for the Paris World Exposition in 1867. The Satsuma feudal clan exhibited in Paris World Exposition along with Saga feudal clan and Tokugawa shogunate government.
    Cooperating with Machida who helped Morse, Fenollosa and Bigelow, Kakuzo( Tenshin ) Okakura became a key person not only as an interpreter for these Americans but also as a promoter of the art revival of Japan.
    Okakura was one of eight first graduates of the Department of Political Science and Economics of the Faculty of Letters at Tokyo University in which Fenollosa instructed political science and economics besides philosophy. As stated above, Jigoro Kano was a second graduates of the Department of Political Science and Economics of Tokyo University with only five alumni.
    After graduation from Tokyo University, Okakura was employed by the Ministry of Education and was in charge of art education. At the same time Okakura kept to be an excellent interpreter and helper to Fenollosa who became to be absorbed in Japanese art, specifically in Buddhism art. Buddhism art around that time were discarded in modernization process of Japan, especially in the aftermath of Haibutsu Kishaku movement which brought down Buddhism.
    Fenollosa together with Kakuzo Okakura studied ancient temples, shrines and treasures, and finally established “ the concept of national treasures in Japan”.
    One month before Bigelow's arrival at Tokyo, in May 1882, Fenollsa delivered a lecture on “ An explanation of the Truth of Art”, which was translated into Japanese and published as a pamphlet and was widely circulated and quoted.
    Many young bureaucrats in the Ministry of Finance and in the Ministry of Interior who desired to preserve traditional art helped Fenollosa; They were eager to circulate the pamphlet in order to persuade majority of Japanese who are attracted by Western culture. As a result of these activities, Fenollosa came to be called “ a standard-barer of Japanese art revival”.
    In 1885, Fenollosa sold his art collections(about 1000pieces) to Boston physician Charles Goddard Weld who visited Japan as a friend of Bigelow on the condition that it go to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. It could be said that Morse, Fenollosa and Bigelow rescued many Buddhist art treasures which would otherwise have been destroyed under Haibutsu Kishaku movement, or discarded at a time when everything Japanese was tabooed as out-of date.
    On the other hand, Kakuzo Okakura and his younger brother Yoshisaburo Okakura had kept interpretation of many letters between Bigelow, Fenollosa and Reverent Keitoku Sakurai back and forth ; These two Americans had many matters to ask around the doctrine of the Esoteric Buddhism of Tendai sect religion.
    Yoshisaburo Okakura later became a professor of English at the Higher Normal School of Tokyo at which Jigoro Kano was the Director for more than 23 years. An excellent interpreter Yoshisaburo Okakura's book titled “ Japanese Spirit” published in London in 1905 was read widely in UK.
    Being absorbed in ascetic practice of the Esoteric Buddhism of Tendai, Bigelow(Buddhist Name Gesshin) had consumed his mind and body. Following religious precepts, he cut off meat-eating, and became so thin that he was almost beyond recognition at last. Advising exhausted Bigelow not to overdo, Sakurai mentioned that those who learn Esoteric Buddhism often become maniacs. Bigelow stopped the ascetic practice and returned to hometown Boston in 1889.
    Fenollosa who resigned from Tokyo University in 1886 was transferred to Commissioner of Fine Art by the Japanese Government with high salary of vice-minister level. He belonged to the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Imperial Household given responsibility of registering the art treasures of Japan, including temples. In 1889, after helping Okakura to found the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, Fenollosa returned to Boston. There, he started to serve as curator of the department of Oriental Art at the Museum of Fine Art, Boston in which William Bigelow's father Henry Bigelow was an influential director.
    In the summer of 1902, Bigelow who was the director of the Museum of Fine Art at Boston after his father's death in 1890, did the second visit to Japan for 13 anniversaries of death of Sakurai Ajari. Avoiding hot and humid summer in Japan, he stayed around Tokyo and refrained from trip to Homyou-in, Mii-dera Temple until fall. In Kyoto, answering to the question by Japanese journalist Yamada from Kyoto Hinode Newspaper, Bigelow advocated his picture theory: the decisive factor is whether a painter has noble and elegant spirit or not.
    In January 1903 Bigelow left Japan and via Europe returned home at Christmas of that year.
    Around that time, the industrial production of the U.S.A. overtook UK and was rising in the world first place. Also, the first Harley Davidson motorcycle appeared in the American market. In December 1903 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Pierre Curie and Marie Curie the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    Four years from 1904 were the heydays of William Sturjis Bigelow's life. With President Roosevelt in his second term, Bigelow called him Ted and was called Bill by Roosevelt. As stated above, when in Washington D.C. Bigelow stayed in the White House, and when in Boston the President and his family stayed at the Bigelow's mansion in Beacon Street. At the residence of Bigelow, the President and his family might appreciate many Japanese cultural aspects collected by Bigelow ; the quintessence of the Japanese culture.
    Bigelow performed consecutive lectures in the regular meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Science three times ; First as an American, explained about philosophy of Northern Buddhism, specifically the Esoteric Buddhism of Tendai sect religion. In 1908 at Harvard University, he delivered his Ingasoll Lecture titled “ Buddhism and Immortality” which helped to the Western world an understanding of Buddhist philosophy.
    Upon Bigelow's death, in accordance with his will, his remains were cremated;half the ashes were brought to Japan by art dealer Teijiro Yamanaka and were buried at Homyo-in, Mii-dera Temple.

    3-1 Jigoro Kano, a man of energy
    Ernest Fenollosa returned to Japan in 1897 to accept a position as Professor of English Literature at the Higher Normal School of Tokyo( the predecessor of University of Tsukuba) at which Jigoro Kano was the Director for more than 23 years.
    Fenollosa's public divorce and immediate remarriage in 1895 to the writer Mary McNeil Scott outraged Boston society, leading his dismissal from the Museum of Fine Art, Boston in which William Bigelow was a director after his father's death. Fenollosa's lack of fidelity to Lizzy was his great weakness, but it does not diminish him and his legacy. We should not lose sight of his immense contribution to revive Japanese Art achieved through deep insight into the nature of fine art.
    When he returned to Japan however, Fenollosa who had embraced Japanese culture realized that Japanese noble and elegant character, faithful and hardy mind were facing extinction because of modernization of the country. From 1855 to 1890, Japan evolved at a faster pace than Britain, France, or the United States ever did. The Meiji government often used specific slogans as “ Fukoku Kyohei”( enriching the country, strengthening the military) and “ Shokusan Kogyo”( encouragement of new industry) in order to achieve its goal. Fenollosa sighed in dismay at the Japanese society poisoned by greed for money and greed for success in life.
    Once, Bigelow wrote to Edward Morse, “ The Japanese people we encountered will be disappearing soon. We will be only ones who witnessed them.” Bigelow wanted Morse to publish what he recorded, otherwise they would be gone and nobody would remember them. In reply to Bigelow's request Morse after a while published “ Japan Day by Day” in 1917. In this book, Morse described as follows;
    “A foreigner, after remaining a few months in Japan, slowly begins to realize that, whereas he thought he could teach the Japanese everything, he finds, to his amazement and chagrin, that those virtue of attributes which, under the name of humanity are the burden of our moral teaching at home, Japanese seem to be born with.”
    On the other hand, Jigoro Kano after graduation from Tokyo University in 1882, was employed as a lecturer at Gakushuin(the School for the Sons of Noblemen, established under the auspices of the Peer's Hall) with monthly salary of 80 yen. As stated above, the starting salary of policeman was 6 yen, and that of elementary school teacher was 5 yen at that time in Tokyo.
    At the same time, Kano aged at 23, established Kodokan(講道館) in some rented rooms belonging to the Eishoji Temple in downtown Ueno with only nine disciples to learn Judo along with Kano-juku, and opened Kobun-gakuin(弘文学院)English School.
    Several years after graduation from Tokyo University, regretting spare time, Kano carried out these four activities with hardy and go-ahead mind; At the Gakushuin he was promoted to the vice principal and a professor at the age of 27. As stated in the chapter 2 of this column, Kano as the master of Kodokan trained and refined Tsunejiro Tomita, Shiro Saigo, Yoshitsugu Yamashita and other disciples for the position.
    Moreover, because Kodokan was enrollment fee free of charge, a nonprofit organization of the tuition free of charge for twelve years until 1894, Kano, often in midnight, undertook translation as a side business to make money for administrating Kodokan.
    The main curriculum in Kobun-gakuin English School which was closed in 1889 before Kano's one year inspection trip to Europe( mainly stayed in Berlin), were English, Judo, and “the thought of John Stuart Mill” ; Kano worked harder than any other teachers he employed at this school.
    Kano-juku was a private, tutoring-like supplementary school operated by Kano for the sons of his relatives and close acquaintances, putting Judo as a required subject. Students who were mostly 10 to 16 years old stayed at Kano-juku usually for two to six years.
    During 38 years(from 1882 to 1919), totally 350 students were said to be educated at Kano-juku.
    Students in Kano-juku must get up at 4:40 or 5:00 am according to age, and must clean the rest room first.
    After cleaning, they study until breakfast at 6.00, then take rest about one hour before they go to their own schools such as the Gakushuin Primary School or the Junior High School attached to The Higher Normal School of Tokyo(present-day Junior High School attached to University of Tsukuba).
    Returning from each schools, boys study until supper at 4:00 pm and required to practice Judo from 5:00 to 6:30. After Judo they study on their own and go to bed at 8:00 or 9:00 according to age. Only on Sunday, they were allowed to get up one hour later than on weekdays.
    Although started with only three students in 1882, in 1898 when Kano as the Director of the Higher Normal School of Tokyo held additional post as the Director of the Common Education Affairs Bureau at the Ministry of Education, total number of students at Kano-juku reached 53, most in its history.
    In it's history of 38 years, most outstanding student at Kano-juku was Yotaro Sugimura, the son of diplomat Fukashi Sugimura ; Yotaro Sugimura became quite active as Vice-Director at League of Nations under the first Secretary-General James Eric Drummond, 7th Earl of Perth.
    After that, as the Ambassador to Italy he successfully changed the mind of Benito Mussolini who had ambition to hold the Olympics in Rome in 1940. As an active Ambassador to France he died in a hospital in Tokyo because of cancer at the age of 54.
    Sugimura, owner of determined ability, was famous as the strongest Judo-ka in the student judo world and gave the brightest match results as the captain of the Tokyo University Judo Club.
    Moreover, in August 20, 1905 (just after the victory of the Sea of Japan in Russo-Japanese War), Sugimura as a sophomore at Tokyo University, won the first 10 mile swimming race in Japanese history at the Gulf of Osaka.
    After graduation from Tokyo University, entering the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a diplomat, Sugimura went to France and three years later was granted the degree of Doctor of Laws at University of Lyon. Around 1923, while staying in Paris as the First Secretary of the Embassy of Japan in France, Sugimura who was 250 pound in weight and 6 feet tall, aged at 39, practiced horseback riding every morning and occasionally taught Judo to the French as an excellent and strong master.
    Many of these boys at Kano-juku were sons of well known people such as Duke Tokudaiji, Grand Chamberlain of the Emperor Meiji, Marquis Daigo and many other noblemen including high-ranking government officials. Kano contacted for all students impartially, and until Kano's marriage with Sumako Takezoe in 1889, they took breakfast and supper together; the conversation there was useful education opportunity.
    After the dormitory life at Kano-juku, Marquis Tadashige Daigo graduating from junior high school attached to Gakushuin entered Naval Academy at Edajima in September 11, 1909. As a naval officer he got in various battleships and submarines as the captain and was promoted to vice admiral in 1942. At the end of the Pacific War, Daigo as the Commander of Sixth Fleet was arrested in Tokyo by Dutch authority for his activities in Indonesia. In 1947 he was sentenced and shot to death in Indonesia as a war criminal.

    3-2 Jigoro Kano, an outstanding cosmopolitan
    While Kano kept his diary in English until later years, he had profound knowledge of Chinese classics.
    He undertook to operate a Japanese School for Chinese diplomats in Tokyo in response to request by Kinmochi Saionji, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Education. In April 17, 1900 the first graduation ceremony of Chinese students dispatched by Qing Dynasty( last of imperial dynasties of China) to be diplomats in Japan was held at Kodokan. Seven graduates received a certificate from principal Kano, and the valedictorian gave an address in wonderful Japanese.
    Since then, Kano, recognizing increasing foreign students from China, established Kobun-gakuin(弘文学院later宏文学院)as real school which accepts them in January 1902.
    In April 1902, Lu Xan(魯迅) who became a famous writer later, entered Kobun-gakuin as one of 50 students from railway technology school in Nanjing(南京). In 1906, 1639 students from all over China lodged and studied at Kobun-gakuin which had added four branch schools.
    This Kobun-gakuin produced many heroes who played an active part in the Xinhai Revolution; Among them Huang Xing(黄興)is famous as the dauntless commander of the revolutionary army. Jackie Chan played a role of him in the movie “1911” which was released in 2011. The poetess Qiujin(秋瑾) who was gallantly beheaded by Chinese authority( Qing dynasity) at the age of 31 loved Japanese sword in her days in Tokyo.
    Sun Yat-sen(孫文) who became the First President and founding father of the Republic of China had strong relationship with Japan. It could be said that the First Republic in Asia built by the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命) in 1911 was “made in Japan”.
    Some excellent graduates of Kobun-gakuin entered the Higher Normal School of Tokyo at which Jigoro Kano served as the Director. Among them, Yang Chnguin(楊昌済) who studied 6 years in Tokyo under Kano, visited U.K. and got the degree of the Bachelor of Arts three years later. Via Germany Yang returned to his hometown Changsha(長沙) after 10 year studying abroad.
    Then, at the First Normal School of Hunan(湖南第一師範学校), Yang taught Mao Zedong(毛沢東) ethics and philosophy for five years. That is why Mao Zedong referred to Jigoro Kano in his virgin article titled “ Study of the physical education”. Mao introduced Kano as one of world three major gymnasts with Theodore Roosevelt and German doctor Augen Sandow who wrote “Strength and How to Obtain It”.
    In January 1909, French Ambassador to Japan Auguste Gerard who was a close friend of Baron Pierre Coubertin visited Jigoro Kano and asked him to be on the International Olympic Committee.
    Kano readily consented to Coubertan's request and took office as the committee of the I.O.C. first as an Asian. Around that time in Japan, there were no such word as sports, Kano started to organize the Japan Sports Association helped by professor Abe at Waseda University and several directors. He served as the First Chairman of the Japan Sports Association for ten years.
    By encouraging sports, Kano desired to build friendly relationship with foreign countries on the one hand, and wanted to increase physical strength of Japanese on the other hand. Above all, Kano as the Director of the Higher Normal School of Tokyo for more than 23 years, desired cultivation of character of Japanese youth through sports. He dedicated his whole life to reconstruct moral and physical nature of the Japanese Youth. Even now, much is still left to be desired as Kano indicated in that we must have in view the general physical development of the whole nation rather than the creation of a selected number of good athletes.
    After 25 years on the I.O.C., Kano who attended I.O.C. session held in Cairo, Egypt in 1938 at the age of 79, finally succeeded in invitation of Tokyo Olympics supposed to be held in 1940. On his way home via Seattle, he died because of pneumonia on luxurious passenger line Hikawa-maru in the Pacific Ocean in may 4, 1938. His funeral service was held according to Shinto rites at Kodokan in May 9, 1938 and 10000 people attended the funeral.
    As described in the chapter 2 of this column, a man of vision, Jigoro Kano ascertained the essence of things, specifically Jujutsu by deep insight. Unlike many other Jujutsu masters of his era, shaking off the past without hesitation, Kano showed superhuman concentration toward a new direction. Above all, first in Japan, he clarified the principle not the application of the Jujutsu technique, specifically the principle of throwing technique(throws); opposite forces in equilibrium to say in physics.
    As we all know by now, Joseph Schumpeter's theory centers around entrepreneurial innovation and their role as the key driver of economic growth. Schumpeter described the act of new innovations as “creative destruction”. Jigoro Kano does achieved it ; Kano developed “ the new system of the martial art which has global universality”.
    Kano's teacher at Tokyo University Fenollosa argued as follows in his article “JAPANESE PLACES IN HISTORY” mentioned in the beginning of this column ;
    “In this coming fusion the bravest and the keenest of us are to be tested, Aryan as well as Mongolian; and the test is whether we shall be great enough not narrow and harden our dogmas by making them conquer, but to expand and free them absorb. Away with the specter of a one-sided world! The formalisms of Europe are as hateful and absurd as Formalisms of Cathay. Let us not mistake any of the these for the vital factors which the future is to immortalize. The fusion comes in due time. Alone the East was sinking into decrepitude; alone the West was opening mines of socialistic thought which threatened explode what is peculiar and anti-Asiatic in her institutions. All European thought is on the eve of a great revolution; all eyes turn with anxiety to the twentieth century. Meanwhile, as it dawns, the arena of the ants' struggles transfers itself from the Mediterranean to the Pacific coast of Asia. ”
    Now, with the player population of 9 million in more than 190 countries in the world, such words as Hajime(Start), Mate(Wait or Stop), Ippon, Waza-ari as Offside in Association Football and Knock- on in Rugby Football, are used every day all over the world.
    It is not too much to declare that Kodokan Judo became the first global standard from Japan; Almost all sports including baseball, basketball, volleyball, tennis, golf, association football, rugby football, track and field, etc. were imported to Japan and introduced as foreign culture.
    Besides, Kano's concepts of “ Seiryoku-Zenyo(Maximum efficient use of energy)and Jita-kyoei( Mutual prosperity for self and others) have eternal value for human-being as Olympic Charter and the Charter of the United Nations. Kano had argued these concepts in the midst of nationalism and imperialism. ( The end )

    丸屋 武士(MARUYA Takeshi) (本名 木伏 龍也)

    References and Citations:
    “Soul of Meiji; Edward Sylvester Morse, his day by day with kindhearted people.” Written and edited by Junichi Kobayashi(Vice Director,Tokyo Metropolitan Edo Tokyo Museum) and Shuko Koyama(Curator, Tokyo Metropolitan Edo Tokyo Museum), published by Yoko Yasuda 2013
    “ JIGORO KANO AND THE KODOKAN―An Innovative Response To Modernization” Compiled by the Kano Sensei Biographic Editorial Committee, Edited and Translated by Alex Bennett
    “Ernest Francisco Fenollosa :published writing in English Volume1,2” edited and introduced by Seiichi Yamaguchi Edition Synapse 2009
    『三井寺に眠るフェノロサとビゲロウの物語』 山口静一著、官帯出版社 2012年
    『 フェノロサ社会論集』 山口静一著、思文閣出版 2000年
    「 フェノロサ、ビゲローと三井寺」 村形明子論文 Lotus: 日本フェノロサ学会機関誌29号
    『 日露戦争と金子堅太郎:広報外交の研究』 松村正義著、新有堂 1980年
    “ AMERICAN NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY” OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS” New York 1999
    “ DICTIONARY OF American Biography” Charles Scribner's Sons New York 1929
    Website 『 意志力道場(Ishiryoku-Dojo http://www.ishiryoku.co.jp/ )』内コラム(Column)『私の心の散歩道』
    Photos; Monuments at Eisho-ji(永昌寺)Temple where Jigoro Kano started Kodokan Judo.



    NBK

    Posts : 1060
    Join date : 2013-01-10
    Location : Tokyo, Japan

    Re: Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House

    Post by NBK on Fri Jul 08, 2016 8:18 am

    Mr. Tatsuya Kibushi is a retired businessman who writes under the pen name of article: 丸屋 武士(MARUYA Takeshi). 
    The portion that reads(本名 木伏 龍也)means 'Real name Kibushi Tatsuya'

    He is a very senior practitioner of Tomiki ryû aikidô, having studied under Tomiki sensei at Waseda University. His insights into the development of Tomiki aikidô are very interesting, having been there in the early days.

    I also enjoy talking to him and trading info. He showed me a lot of these articles before he published them. He also has a series ongoing in Hiden, one of Japan's premier martial arts magazines.

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    Re: Judo and BUSHIDO at the White House

    Post by Sponsored content Today at 1:15 pm


      Current date/time is Sun Dec 11, 2016 1:15 pm