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    Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

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    cuivien

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    Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Wed Jan 30, 2013 1:40 am

    I stumbled across this book called 『武道極意』 or budô gokui by 内田良平 Uchida Ryôhei, which to some forum members might be known as the creator of the first(?) book on jûdô (circa 1902).

    There's a number of pretty interesting things in it, but the thing that immediately caught my eye was the chapter on jû yoku gô wo sei-suru. I might do some different things later, as this stuff is pretty cool except for when Rhôhei goes on tangents which requires me to use all my powers of Google-fu just to find a single word from a 7-line sentence.

    Here's a translation I've been working on for a couple of days. It's by no means perfect, so I'm also adding the original text, but at least it's an attempt to give people a feel for pre-WW2, right-wing people thought about budô.

    ---

    Chapter 24 "Jû yoku gô wo sei-su" (pp. 65-69)

    That thing which makes jû able to control/get the better of gô is ki. This ki is the same ki as talked about in Mencius' "I am skillfully able to nourish my universal life force" (note1). The character used for ki (気) is pronounced the same way as ki (季 season; year), ki (期 time period), and ki (機 chance; opportunity), and is essential for grasping the essential points of budô. Ki (気) is the ki of Heaven, and it is by receiving that ki that Man is born. It is breath. It is spirit. For that reason, one should say that Man lives and moves due to ki. Ki (季) is the four seasons as brought forth by ki (気), and the essential meaning of the character ki (季) is "hitherto; still; not yet" (note2). This implies eternal changes. Ki (期) is something decided, like the seasons. However, even that which is decided, when its time comes to the brim, it always changes. Change is one of Nature's underlying principles, and ki (機) rises from this. Ki (機) when discussing ki (気) is like the eye inside yin, like wind and rain, always moving, never stopping. The movements of ki (機) abide by Nature, and when it does, there is victory. If it resists and go the opposite way, there is defeat.

    In short, it is due to the mysterious influence of the rule of Heaven (note3) that jû gets the better of gô. There is no certainty in jû defeating gô, in the same way that there is no certainty in gô defeating jû. Victory and defeat exist only by the skill of application of changes between unconventionality and conventionality. Even though the people of old used to say that "jû is yang, and gô is yin", it is more correct to say that jû is the yang inside yin, and that it is the extreme form of yin that has been transformed into yang. In the same way, gô is the yin inside yang, more specifically the extreme form of yang that has been transformed into yin. Again, people of old said that "the changes of extreme yin into yang and extreme yang into yin are just like the flow of the four seasons". As winter's yin overflows and turns into the yang of spring, the force of which plants and vegetation sprout may look superficially weak, but it is impossible to restrain. In summer, all things grow with yang, and it may resemble a shape of great strength, but already around autumn harvest it turns into yin, again a change that is impossible to stop no matter how. In similar fashion, as there is always movements and changes within ki (機), if one applies ki (気) in the proper direction when there is a change in energy/power, one obtains the "jû yoku gô wo sei-suru" (soft gets the better of hard). The path of riding (i.e. following) changes in power requires a fortification of the heart, which results in loosening of the body. In the densho of the jigô tenshin-ryû jû-jutsu it is explained as: "if one does not fortify one's heart, it is impossible to intelligently discern the great from the tiny. If one does not loosen one's body, it is impossible to find relief in swift motions. For that reason, we do not simply call it nyûwa (gentleness), but also call it jigô tenshin (self-hardening heavenly truth)." The "Kenchô" (questions about the sword) cited below also explains things in similar fashion.

    Wei Liaozi (note4) collection #12: "Successful warfare resembles water. Here water is extremely pliant. Thus, when it goes against a mound it will surely break. There are no exceptions. Control its attributes and it becomes truth." (note5)

    The core of this quote is that an army that attacks and defeats its enemy should be like water. Whatever it touches upon crumbles and becomes broken. Now, this/that which we call water might be extremely fragile and delicate, but that which it drains up is surely broken down like the masses of the hill. For that reason, those which wholeheartedly seek to become like the attributes of water becomes pure. Warriors should prepare with these things in mind. Those who become people of the crafts nowadays, whether or not they confront their opponent, they show right and strike left, show the hem (of the underskirt worn under the kimono) and strike the neck. Without exception all they do is deceive and cajole everyone. Consequently, if one does not cleanly penetrate my opponent's stomach with proper blood-thirst, this then causes a lack of focus, where both are doing just whatever he feels best. It is just sad. Like this, one's life becomes the harshness of frost and the suffering of snow; and in the end one becomes just a case of idling one's life away with no hope of getting ahead in any area. I yearn that, like the logic that something with the attributes of water can cause even a mound to collapse, we will awaken and perceive the truth, and with a proper heart adhere to proper things. If one arrives to that beautiful place of free and spontaneous action, on would be at a "shining place of discernment, where opponents cannot face you." What illuminates the eyes of the public cannot even compare.


    note1:
    The Japanese text reads: "我れ善く吾が浩然の気を養ふ". This comes from a dialogue between 公孫丑 Gong Sun Chou and Mencius, and the relevant parts of the original text reads:
    丑:「敢問夫子惡乎長?」 "I respectfully ask, Master, wherein you surpass [告子 Master Gao]."
    曰:「我知言,我善養吾浩然之氣。」 "I understand words. I am skillfully able to nourish my universal life force [lit: great and prosperous ki]."
    丑:「敢問何謂浩然之氣?」 "I respectfully ask what you mean by 'your universal life force'."
    曰:「難言也。其為氣也,至大至剛,以直養而無害,則塞于天地之閒。其為氣也,配義與道;無是,餒也。是集義所生者,非義襲而取之也。行有不慊於心,則餒矣。我故曰,告子未嘗知義,以其外之也。必有事焉而勿正,心勿忘,勿助長也。無若宋人然:宋人有閔其苗之不長而揠之者,芒芒然歸。謂其人曰:『今日病矣,予助苗長矣。』其子趨而往視之,苗則槁矣。天下之不助苗長者寡矣。以為無益而舍之者,不耘苗者也;助之長者,揠苗者也。非徒無益,而又害之。」"It is difficult to explain. This is ki: it exceeds big/great, and it exceeds strength, being nourished by earnesty/excellence and never harmed, it fills up all between heaven and earth. This is [also] ki: the servant of righteousness and dao; without this, man starves. It is born and accumulated naturally from righteous deeds, not to be taken from righteousness by force. If the heart does not delight in doing [repeatedly] these things, consequently [the body] starves. I therefore say: 'Master Gao has never tried to understand righteousness, because for him it is something external'. There must be the constant practice of this righteousness, but without the object of thereby nourishing the passion-nature. Let not the mind forget its work, but let there be no assisting the growth of that nature. Let us not be like the man of Song. There was a man of Song, who was grieved that his growing corn was not longer, and so he pulled it up. Having done this, he returned home, looking very stupid, and said to his people, "I am tired to-day. I have been helping the corn to grow long." His son ran to look at it, and found the corn all withered. There are few in the world, who do not deal with their passion-nature, as if they were assisting the corn to grow long. Some indeed consider it of no benefit to them, and let it alone - they do not weed their corn. They who assist it to grow long, pull out their corn. What they do is not only of no benefit to the nature, but it also injures it."

    note2:
    It is hard to see in the original text whether it is written未 ima-da, which has the meanings laid out above, or末 sue/matsu, which both can mean "finally; following; future" and "the end".

    note3:
    天理の妙用 tenri no myôyô, tenri can also mean simply "natural laws"

    note4:
    The theoretical treatise called 尉繚子Wèi Liáozi was written during the Warring States Period (403-221 BC), and is considered one of the seven military classics of ancient China.

    note5:
    I get the gist of it, but Chinese is far from my preferred language to translate from. If someone would venture a better translation, here is the original Chinese text: 『勝兵似㆑水。夫水至柔弱者也。然所㆑觸丘陸必爲㆑之崩。無㆑異也。性專而觸誠也。』
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    NBK

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Wed Jan 30, 2013 5:54 pm

    Interesting but maddening stuff. A lot of repetition of Confucian texts, which continues in other veins until the Occupation. We had a long thread on the topic on the old forum.
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Wed Jan 30, 2013 6:46 pm

    yeah, I remember that thread. I think I actually saved it to Word at some point, there was a lot of good stuff in it.


    After New Year's I've found myself with fairly large amounts of time to slack off at work, but rather than sleeping at my desk I've been rummaging through the Kindai database saving something like 4gb of pdf's to my hard drive. Whenever I dig up something interesting from that pile, I'll probably do some rough translations and post :-)


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Wed Jan 30, 2013 11:48 pm

    Thanks, that would be great.

    There are tremendous resources available in the last 3-5 years - I wish that there was a cheap or free Japanese newspaper source online, that would be great. But the Tokyo Library is only a couple of km from my apt, I guess I'm just lazy.

    Maybe I should sign up for some junior college course to get linked into the great global uni web.... study It would probably be worth the time and effort to keep from chasing all over the place.
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Thu Jan 31, 2013 12:35 am

    For some reason I all of a sudden pictured you attending the hair & make-up course at モード学園 or some similar 美術専門学校 LOL

    But yeah, being hooked into the uni web is awesome. I "borrow" access to sooo many magazines and journals, as well as priority inter-library loans via a couple of friends who are doing their Ph.D's.
    The only thing I've not been able to procure is Dr.Yves Cadot's thesis, which Bibliothèque Universitaire des langues et Civilisations is being a bitch about for some reason. I'm seriously considering going to Paris just to punch the head librarian there in the face, then read it and go home.


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Thu Jan 31, 2013 10:33 am

    cuivien wrote:For some reason I all of a sudden pictured you attending the hair & make-up course at モード学園 or some similar 美術専門学校 LOL

    But yeah, being hooked into the uni web is awesome. I "borrow" access to sooo many magazines and journals, as well as priority inter-library loans via a couple of friends who are doing their Ph.D's.
    The only thing I've not been able to procure is Dr.Yves Cadot's thesis, which Bibliothèque Universitaire des langues et Civilisations is being a bitch about for some reason. I'm seriously considering going to Paris just to punch the head librarian there in the face, then read it and go home.

    Hadn't thought of that... If cheaper, I'd do it. I am frugal, honestly derived from Scotch-Irish farming stock... and pink hair rollers have no terrors for me. I'm married.

    And regarding Dr. Cadot's thesis:
    - have you asked him?
    - looked locally?
    - asked anyone judoka in France?

    It would be good to see. I say see because my French is very poor, but I would like to see the compilations, references, tables, etc.

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Thu Jan 31, 2013 11:16 am

    cuivien wrote:For some reason I all of a sudden pictured you attending the hair & make-up course at モード学園 or some similar 美術専門学校 LOL

    But yeah, being hooked into the uni web is awesome. I "borrow" access to sooo many magazines and journals, as well as priority inter-library loans via a couple of friends who are doing their Ph.D's.
    The only thing I've not been able to procure is Dr.Yves Cadot's thesis, which Bibliothèque Universitaire des langues et Civilisations is being a bitch about for some reason. I'm seriously considering going to Paris just to punch the head librarian there in the face, then read it and go home.

    I can give you the following synopsis with my compliments ...


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Thu Jan 31, 2013 11:53 am

    Thank you!

    Why the face? Question
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Thu Jan 31, 2013 1:09 pm

    NBK wrote:Thank you!

    Why the face? Question

    Because it isn't an option here in the smiley library, I have made it part of my signature. It applies to most post anyhow, except those about 'ki', which deserve a Wizard icon. Consider yourself a happy exception.


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Thu Jan 31, 2013 7:29 pm

    Thanks CK.

    I found this some time last year and skimmed through it, but forgot where I put the copy Embarassed
    Having it on file is better.

    As for your recommendations NBK:
    - Have not tried mailing/asking Dr. Cadot directly.
    - Have tried local institutions which would likely have a copy, or at least access to one
    - Do not know any French judôka

    The best would probably be to contact the writer directly. If lucky, maybe I could get a pdf cheers


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Fri Feb 01, 2013 1:57 am

    cuivien wrote:Thanks CK.

    I found this some time last year and skimmed through it, but forgot where I put the copy Embarassed
    Having it on file is better.

    As for your recommendations NBK:
    - Have not tried mailing/asking Dr. Cadot directly.
    - Have tried local institutions which would likely have a copy, or at least access to one
    - Do not know any French judôka

    The best would probably be to contact the writer directly. If lucky, maybe I could get a pdf cheers

    Cuivien, if you want I also have another article of him here in Japanese. I can attach it if you or NBK are interested in it.


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by finarashi on Fri Feb 01, 2013 6:41 am

    Cichorei Kano wrote:

    I can give you the following synopsis with my compliments ...

    Thanks a lot, this gives one something to think.


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Fri Feb 01, 2013 7:26 pm

    Cichorei Kano wrote:Cuivien, if you want I also have another article of him here in Japanese. I can attach it if you or NBK are interested in it.

    *raises hand to indicate interest*
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Fri Feb 01, 2013 8:26 pm

    cuivien wrote:
    Cichorei Kano wrote:Cuivien, if you want I also have another article of him here in Japanese. I can attach it if you or NBK are interested in it.

    *raises hand to indicate interest*
    ditto cheers
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Fri Feb 01, 2013 8:48 pm

    Back on the subject at hand, in one of the earliest, if not the earliest judo book, written by Arima Sumitomo (there is a 3 pg topic on it on the old forum but the Japanese is now garbage, and the entries seemed repeated on pp 2-3, I can't believe how incompetent Ezoic really is - I wonder if all of that Japanese entered at such pains by so many people is lost forever, makes me want to puke), he profiles a handful of senior judoka - and Uchida Ryohei is one of them, a 5dan in either late 1800's or very early 1900's (I've not looked at the text of the very earliest Arima books, but it is clear the text was published several times, with minor or no changes, and versions published by his son after Sumitomo's death at a fairly young age).
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Fri Feb 01, 2013 11:24 pm

    NBK wrote:Back on the subject at hand, in one of the earliest, if not the earliest judo book, written by Arima Sumitomo (there is a 3 pg topic on it on the old forum but the Japanese is now garbage, and the entries seemed repeated on pp 2-3, I can't believe how incompetent Ezoic really is - I wonder if all of that Japanese entered at such pains by so many people is lost forever, makes me want to puke), he profiles a handful of senior judoka - and Uchida Ryohei is one of them, a 5dan in either late 1800's or very early 1900's (I've not looked at the text of the very earliest Arima books, but it is clear the text was published several times, with minor or no changes, and versions published by his son after Sumitomo's death at a fairly young age).

    yeah, unless the Wayback Machine has a copy of the page stored, all topics on the old forum are now confined to a single page with garbled formatting Evil or Very Mad
    There's a couple of treads I've been able to salvage that way, most notably the "what is judo" thread and the DNBK thread which IIRC stretched over 7 or 8 pages

    but let's see...
    I have on pdf:
    『柔道大意』, 岡崎屋, 明治38
    『通俗柔道図解』,岡崎屋,明治38
    『有馬柔道教範』,河内書店,大正14

    I'll have a look after today's staff meeting and see if I can find Uchida's name in either of them. I'm not sure as to why, but I keep coming back to this thought I have of him as a potentially more important figure than previously assumed...

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Fri Feb 01, 2013 11:39 pm

    Actually I dug up my copies. Forgot I had the earlier ones, I keep a copy of the Taisho edition as a reference.

    The Meiji 38 / 1905 柔道大意 'The Gist of Judo' and the Taisho era multiple versions of 俗柔道図解 Popularized Judo Illustrated have a section in the back after the techniques providing short overviews of a number of famous judoka:
    Kano shihan
    Hirose 6dan (Imperial Japanese Navy Lieutenant Commander, killed while assigned to the Port Arthur blockade force)
    Tomita 5dan
    Yuasa 4dan (another IJN officer killed at Port Arthur)
    Uchida 4dan
    Honda 2dan (CK knows a lot about him, a long term training partner of Kano shihan)

    I have no references of Arima beyond 4dan.



    Last edited by NBK on Sat Feb 02, 2013 12:52 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Fri Feb 01, 2013 11:46 pm

    Found it in the jûdô gokui as well. It lists:
    - Kano shihan
    - 廣瀨 Hirose 6th dan
    - Tomita 5th dan
    - 湯淺 Yuasa (?) 4th dan
    - Uchida 4th dan
    - 本田 2nd dan

    Now, time to go listen to people go on and on about bureaucratic nonsense Sad


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Sat Feb 02, 2013 2:21 am

    cuivien wrote:
    Cichorei Kano wrote:Cuivien, if you want I also have another article of him here in Japanese. I can attach it if you or NBK are interested in it.

    *raises hand to indicate interest*

    At your service, sir:


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Sat Feb 02, 2013 11:41 pm

    NBK wrote:
    Honda 2dan (CK knows a lot about him, a long term training partner of Kano shihan)

    care to share CK? the information given about him in the jûdô gokui isn't all that revealing...

    p.s. thanks for the article Smile
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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Sun Feb 03, 2013 12:12 am

    cuivien wrote:
    NBK wrote:
    Honda 2dan (CK knows a lot about him, a long term training partner of Kano shihan)

    care to share CK? the information given about him in the jûdô gokui isn't all that revealing...

    p.s. thanks for the article Smile

    Honda Ariya 本田存 was born in 1870 and died in 1949. His background was in a somewhat unusual bujutsu, namely "martial swimming" or Sui’eijutsu 水泳術. His specific style was called Sui-fu-ryū Ōta-ha 水府流太田派, which is characterized by sideways swimming. He was a successful swimming coach whose school swimming teams won medals and titles. He was a appointed as instructor of the women's division or Kôdôkan Joshi-bu and he was Fukuda Keiko's instructor rather than Kanô as purported by American popular and jûdô media. He obtained the rank of Kôdôkan 8th dan. One must be careful when not using kanji, since there were also several sensei with similar names (espec. Handa and Kanda) and sometimes multiple of them with different first names. Honda also taught women's self-defense and was involved in the creation of the Joshi jûdô goshinhô.


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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Sun Feb 03, 2013 6:23 am

    Ah, that helps tie up one loose end.
    I have a note on my computer, unfortunately without references, stating that while organized training for females at the Kôdôkan didn't become "normal" until around 1922-23, a man 本田 Honda (no first name) who was then 6th dan had been teaching females including one 安田 Yasuda for some time before that. Surely that must be the same man.

    As for the swimming techniques of his style, NikoNiko dôga to the rescue!
    日本古式泳法 ‐ 水府流太田派


    edit:
    One must be careful when not using kanji, since there were also several sensei with similar names (espec. Handa and Kanda) and sometimes multiple of them with different first names.
    Indeed. It is a given that one of several reason why there are so much shady publishing/reporting on jûdô (and other Asian matters) is related to the language barrier and/or lack of proper research...
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    Cichorei Kano

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by Cichorei Kano on Sun Feb 03, 2013 7:11 am

    cuivien wrote:Ah, that helps tie up one loose end.
    I have a note on my computer, unfortunately without references, stating that while organized training for females at the Kôdôkan didn't become "normal" until around 1922-23, a man 本田 Honda (no first name) who was then 6th dan had been teaching females including one 安田 Yasuda for some time before that. Surely that must be the same man.

    As for the swimming techniques of his style, NikoNiko dôga to the rescue!
    日本古式泳法 ‐ 水府流太田派

    That's an interesting little video you found there, thanks ! I'll bet NBK will love it too. I can already see him lying in the water practicing !

    I guess I probably should have written in my prior post "swimming while lying on one side" rather than "sideways swimming", the latter which really means more like instead of going forwards or backwards, moving in a direction perpendicular to either. What I found really interesting is the makimono in the beginning of the clip which seems to be from the hand of the very same Honda ! Now that is a remarkable coincidence !


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    cuivien

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by cuivien on Mon Feb 04, 2013 9:16 pm

    Cichorei Kano wrote:
    That's an interesting little video you found there, thanks ! I'll bet NBK will love it too. I can already see him lying in the water practicing !

    I guess I probably should have written in my prior post "swimming while lying on one side" rather than "sideways swimming", the latter which really means more like instead of going forwards or backwards, moving in a direction perpendicular to either. What I found really interesting is the makimono in the beginning of the clip which seems to be from the hand of the very same Honda ! Now that is a remarkable coincidence !

    Yeah. I also looked up the name on Google Books, which gave some promising results, but no luck so far Sad

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    ps. This webpage Linky link gives some information about the different styles of Japanese Martial Swimming
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    NBK

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

    Post by NBK on Tue Feb 05, 2013 6:54 pm

    cuivien wrote:Ah, that helps tie up one loose end.
    ...As for the swimming techniques of his style, NikoNiko dôga to the rescue!
    日本古式泳法 ‐ 水府流太田派...
    What, pray tell, is 'NikoNiko dôga' ? Question

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    Re: Uchida Ryôhei - "The key points of budô"

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